The Measurement of Independent and Interdependent Self-Construals

  title={The Measurement of Independent and Interdependent Self-Construals},
  author={Theodore M. Singelis},
  journal={Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin},
  pages={580 - 591}
  • T. Singelis
  • Published 1 October 1994
  • Psychology
  • Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
Following concepts introduced by Markus and Kitayama, this study describes the theoretical and empirical development of a scale to measure the strength of an individual's interdependent and independent self-construals. These two images of self are conceptualized as reflecting the emphasis on connectedness and relations often found in non-Western cultures (interdependent) and the separateness and uniqueness of the individual (independent) stressed in the West. It is argued that these two images… 

The Elusive Nature of Self-Measurement: The Self-Construal Scale Versus the Twenty Statements Test

Comparisons of 2 frequently used measures to operationalize the construct of the self demonstrated low intercorrelations between the 2 measures, suggesting that the qualitative and quantitative measures did not evaluate the same construct.

Culture and self: An empirical assessment of Markus and Kitayama’s theory of independent and interdependent self‐construals

In this paper, I critically evaluate the logic underlying Markus and Kitayama's (1991) theory of independent and interdependent self-construals, and examine the evidence that directly tests its major

Self-Construals Across Cultures

This article reviews the literature on cross-cultural assessment of self-construals and proposes to refine their conceptualization by incorporating principles derived from self-categorization theory

The relational-interdependent self-construal and relationships.

Individuals who scored high on the Relational-Interdependent Self-Construal (RISC) Scale characterized their important relationships as closer and more committed than did individuals who scored low on this measure and were more likely to take into account the needs and wishes of others when making decisions.

Self-Construal as a Mediator Between Identity Structure and Subjective Well-Being

The results showed that specificity, separateness, and stability of identity content influenced positive and negative affect through the mediating agency of independent and interdependent self-construals, emphasizing the importance of applying a self- construal perspective in considering adaptive functions of identity.

Models of the self: self-construals and gender.

Recognition of the interdependent self-construal as a possible alternative conception of the self may stimulate new investigations into the ways the self influences a person's thinking, feeling, and behaving.

Self-Construal and its relationship with Individualism Collectivism in Egypt

This article studied the authenticity and validity of the Egyptian Version of Singelis’s (1994) 30-item Self-Construal Scale (SCS). The Participants in this study consisted of 419 undergraduate

Defining and Measuring Self-Concept Change

The self-concept and the manners by which it changes are two of the most important, and challenging, areas of psychological study. In this review, we define the self-concept as a multifaceted

Factor Structure of the Self-Construal Scale Revisited

The Self-Construal Scale (SCS) is an important measure of self-construal. However, new data are needed on the structure of the SCS using more appropriate statistical techniques and investigating the



Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation.

People in different cultures have strikingly different construals of the self, of others, and of the interdependence of the 2. These construals can influence, and in many cases determine, the very

Culture, self, and collectivist communication: linking culture to individual behavior.

A theoretical framework and corresponding methodology to link variables at the culture level to the individual level and, then, to specific outcome variables are developed and demonstrated.

Individualism and Collectivism: Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Self-Ingroup Relationships

The individualism and collectivism constructs are theoretically analyzed and linked to certain hypothesized consequences (social behaviors, health indices). Study 1 explores the meaning of these

An empirical investigation of self-attitudes.

A LTHOUGH the self has long been the central concept in the symbolic interaction approach to social psychology, little if anything has been done to employ it directly in empirical research. There are

Latent Structure of Self-Monitoring.

A review of published factor analyses of the Self-Monitoring Scale revealed evidence consistent with several different latent structures underlying responses to the scale's 25 items, with the most favorable results in support of a first-order measurement model with 18 indicators of three intercorrelated first- order latent variables.

Chinese Values and the Search for Culture-Free Dimensions of Culture

A survey of Chinese values was constructed and administered to university students in 22 countries around the world. An ecological factor analysis was run on the culture means for the 40 scale items