The Measurement of Independent and Interdependent Self-Construals

  title={The Measurement of Independent and Interdependent Self-Construals},
  author={Theodore M. Singelis},
  journal={Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin},
  pages={580 - 591}
  • T. Singelis
  • Published 1 October 1994
  • Psychology
  • Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
Following concepts introduced by Markus and Kitayama, this study describes the theoretical and empirical development of a scale to measure the strength of an individual's interdependent and independent self-construals. These two images of self are conceptualized as reflecting the emphasis on connectedness and relations often found in non-Western cultures (interdependent) and the separateness and uniqueness of the individual (independent) stressed in the West. It is argued that these two images… Expand
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