The Maunder minimum (1645–1715) was indeed a grand minimum: A reassessment of multiple datasets

  title={The Maunder minimum (1645–1715) was indeed a grand minimum: A reassessment of multiple datasets},
  author={Ilya G. Usoskin and Rainer Arlt and Eleanna Asvestari and Ed Hawkins and M. J. Kapyla and Gennady A. Kovaltsov and Natalie A. Krivova and Mike Lockwood and Kalevi Mursula and J. O'Reilly and Matthew J. Owens and Chris Scott and Dmitry D. Sokoloff and Sami K. Solanki and Willie Soon and Jos{\'e} Manuel Vaquero},
  journal={Astronomy and Astrophysics},
Aims. Although the time of the Maunder minimum (1645–1715) is widely known as a period of extremely low solar activity, it is still being debated whether solar activity during that period might have been moderate or even higher than the current solar cycle #24. We have revisited all existing evidence and datasets, both direct and indirect, to assess the level of solar activity during the Maunder minimum. Methods. We discuss the East Asian naked-eye sunspot observations, the telescopic solar… Expand
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