The Matilda Effect in science: Awards and prizes in the US, 1990s and 2000s

@article{Lincoln2012TheME,
  title={The Matilda Effect in science: Awards and prizes in the US, 1990s and 2000s},
  author={Anne E. Lincoln and Stephanie H Pincus and Jan Koster and Phoebe S. Leboy},
  journal={Social Studies of Science},
  year={2012},
  volume={42},
  pages={307 - 320}
}
Science is stratified, with an unequal distribution of research facilities and rewards among scientists. Awards and prizes, which are critical for shaping scientific career trajectories, play a role in this stratification when they differentially enhance the status of scientists who already have large reputations: the ‘Matthew Effect’. Contrary to the Mertonian norm of universalism – the expectation that the personal attributes of scientists do not affect evaluations of their scientific claims… 

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