# The Mathematical Universe

@article{Tegmark2007TheMU, title={The Mathematical Universe}, author={Max Tegmark}, journal={Foundations of Physics}, year={2007}, volume={38}, pages={101-150} }

Abstract
I explore physics implications of the External Reality Hypothesis (ERH) that there exists an external physical reality completely independent of us humans. I argue that with a sufficiently broad definition of mathematics, it implies the Mathematical Universe Hypothesis (MUH) that our physical world is an abstract mathematical structure. I discuss various implications of the ERH and MUH, ranging from standard physics topics like symmetries, irreducible representations, units, free…

## 369 Citations

Geometrical Universe Hypothesis

- Physics
- 2015

Max Tegmark, exploring implications of the External Reality Hypothesis (ERH) that there exists an external physical reality completely independent of us humans, claims that physics is so successfully…

Physical Relativism as an Interpretation of Existence

- Philosophy, Physics
- 2013

Despite the success of modern physics in formulating mathematical theories that can predict the outcome of quantum-scale experiments, the physical interpretations of these theories remain…

Towards a theory of universes: structure theory and the mathematical universe hypothesis

- PhilosophySynthese
- 2015

The mathematical universe hypothesis as developed by Max Tegmark with the axioms of Stewart Shapiro’s structure theory are combined to form a theory, the Theory of the Structural Multiverse (TSM), which is demonstrated to be an empirically significant scientific theory that is foundational to and continuous with the rest of the scientific image.

My God, It’s Full of Clones: Living in a Mathematical Universe

- Philosophy
- 2016

Imagine there’s only math—physics is nothing more than mathematics, we are self-aware mathematical substructures, and our physical universe is nothing more than a mathematical structure “seen from…

DEAN RICKLES ON EXPLAINING EXISTENCE

- Philosophy, Physics
- 2009

What are the limits of physics’ explanatory power? Can physics explain everything? In this paper I discuss a somewhat broader question: can physics explain existence itself? I argue that genuinely…

The Informational Conception and Basic Physics

- Computer Science
- 2015

The model is experimentally testable and yet now makes be more clear a number of basic problems in special relativity, quantum mechanics, and, rather probably, in [now – in Newtonian] gravity.

Physics from scratch. Letter on M. Tegmark's ``The Mathematical Universe''

- Philosophy, Physics
- 2008

In a recent article, M. Tegmark poses the hypothesis that our known universe is a ``baggage free'' mathematical structure among many other possible ones, which also correspond to other physical…

The Computable Universe Hypothesis

- Computer Science, PhysicsArXiv
- 2010

It is shown how computable physical models on effective topological spaces can be formulated using the theory of type-two effectivity (TTE), which allows for a precise formalization of the computable universe hypothesis--the claim that all the laws of physics are computable.

A physicist's view of the universe: a philosophical approach

- Philosophy
- 2010

Without a doubt many problems in physics arise as a consequence of our philosophical conception of the world. In this contribution however we endeavor to alleviate this scenario by putting forward a…

The Role of Mathematics in Fundamental Physics

- Physics
- 2017

In this chapter, I argue that the unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics in fundamental physics has become evident through our growing understanding of the significance of symmetry principles in…

## References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 155 REFERENCES

On Math, Matter and Mind

- Physics
- 2006

We discuss the nature of reality in the ontological context of Penrose’s math-matter-mind triangle. The triangle suggests the circularity of the widespread view that math arises from the mind, the…

The structure of the world from pure numbers

- Physics
- 2005

I investigate the relationship between physics and mathematics. I argue that physics can shed light on the proper foundations of mathematics, and that the nature of number can constrain the nature of…

Is “the Theory of Everything” Merely the Ultimate Ensemble Theory?

- PhysicsAnnals of Physics
- 1998

Abstract We discuss some physical consequences of what might be called “the ultimate ensemble theory,”, where not only worlds corresponding to say different sets of initial data or different physical…

83 years of general relativity and cosmology: progress and problems

- Physics, Education
- 1999

This paper considers the evolution of the relation between gravitational theory and cosmology from the development of the first simple quantitative cosmological models in 1917 to the sophistication…

Multiverses and physical cosmology

- Philosophy
- 2003

The idea of a multiverse – an ensemble of universes – has received increasing attention in cosmology, both as the outcome of the originating process that generated our own universe, and as an…

Does the universe in fact contain almost no information?

- Physics
- 1996

At first sight, an accurate description of the state of the universe appears to require a mind-bogglingly large and perhaps even infinite amount of information, even if we restrict our attention to a…

Why Occam’S Razor

- Philosophy
- 2004

Ensemble theories have received a lot of interest recently as a means of explaining a lot of the detailed complexity observed in reality by a vastly simpler description “every possibility exists” and…

Feynman-Weinberg Quantum Gravity and the Extended Standard Model as a Theory of Everything

- Physics
- 2007

I argue that the (extended) Standard Model (SM) of particle physics and the renormalizable Feynman-Weinberg theory of quantum gravity comprise a theory of everything. I show that imposing the…

Towards a Coherent Theory of Physics and Mathematics

- Philosophy
- 2002

As an approach to a Theory of Everything a framework for developing a coherent theory of mathematics and physics together is described. The main characteristic of such a theory is discussed: the…

Symmetries in physics: philosophical reflections

- Physics, Philosophy
- 2003

This is the table of contents and first chapter of "Symmetries in physics: philosophical reflections", edited by Katherine Brading and Elena Castellani, Cambridge University Press, 2003. As the…