The Magnitude of Global Marine Species Diversity

@article{Appeltans2012TheMO,
  title={The Magnitude of Global Marine Species Diversity},
  author={Ward Appeltans and Shane T. Ahyong and Gary Anderson and Martin Vivian Angel and Tom J. Artois and Nicolas Bailly and Roger N. Bamber and Anthony Barber and Ilse Bartsch and Annalisa Berta and Magdalena Błażewicz-Paszkowycz and Philip E. Bock and Geoffrey Allan Boxshall and Christopher B. Boyko and Simone Nunes Brand{\~a}o and Rodney A. Bray and Niel L. Bruce and Stephen D. Cairns and Tin-Yam Chan and Lanna Cheng and Allen Gilbert Collins and Thomas Herbert Cribb and Marco Curini-Galletti and Farid Dahdouh-Guebas and Peter J. F. Davie and Michael N. Dawson and Olivier De Clerck and Wim Decock and Sammy de Grave and Nicole J. de Voogd and Daryl Domning and Christian C. Emig and Christer Ers{\'e}us and William N. Eschmeyer and Kristian Fauchald and Daphne Gail Fautin and Stephen W. Feist and Charles H.J.M. Fransen and Hidetaka Furuya and {\'O}scar Garc{\'i}a-{\'A}lvarez and Sarah Gerken and David I. Gibson and Arjan Gittenberger and Serge Gofas and Liza G{\'o}mez-Daglio and Dennis P. Gordon and Michael D. Guiry and Francisco Hernandez and Bert W. Hoeksema and Russell R Hopcroft and Dami{\'a} Jaume and Paul M. Kirk and Nico Koedam and Stefan Koenemann and J{\"u}rgen Kolb and Reinhardt M{\o}bjerg Kristensen and Andreas Kroh and Gretchen Lambert and David B Lazarus and Rafael Lemaitre and Matt Longshaw and James K. Lowry and Enrique Macpherson and Laurence P. Madin and Christopher L. Mah and Gillian M. Mapstone and Patsy A. Mclaughlin and Jan Mees and Kenneth Meland and Charles G. Messing and Claudia E. Mills and Tina N Molodtsova and Rich Mooi and Birger Neuhaus and Peter K. L. Ng and Claus J. Nielsen and Jon L. Norenburg and Dennis M. Opresko and Masayuki Osawa and Gustav Paulay and William Perrin and John F. Pilger and Gary C. B. Poore and Philip R. Pugh and Geoffrey Bernard Read and J. Reimer and Marc Rius and Rosana M. Rocha and Jos{\'e} Ignacio Saiz-Salinas and V{\'i}ctor Scarabino and Bernd Schierwater and Andreas Schmidt‐Rhaesa and Kareen E. Schnabel and Marilyn Schotte and Peter Schuchert and Enrico Schwabe and Hendrik Segers and Caryn Self-Sullivan and Noa Shenkar and Volker Siegel and Wolfgang E. Sterrer and Sabine St{\"o}hr and Billie J. Swalla and Mark L. Tasker and Erik V. Thuesen and Tarmo Timm and M. Antonio Todaro and Xavier Turon and Seth D. Tyler and Peter Uetz and Jacob van der Land and Bart Vanhoorne and L. P. van Ofwegen and Rob W.M. van Soest and Jan Vanaverbeke and Genefor K. Walker-Smith and Thorsten Walter and Alan Warren and Gary Campbell Williams and Simon P. Wilson and Mark John Costello},
  journal={Current Biology},
  year={2012},
  volume={22},
  pages={2189-2202}
}

Figures and Tables from this paper

Biological Extinction and Climate Change

  • P. Raven
  • Environmental Science
    Health of People, Health of Planet and Our Responsibility
  • 2020
What are the current dimensions of biological diversity? Taxonomists have described approximately two million species of eukaryotic organisms. Many more remain unknown, and the global total may

A global biodiversity estimate of a poorly known taxon: phylum Tardigrada

It appears that tardigrades are both poorly studied and relatively species poor, as a new technique has recently been developed that uses the more complete knowledge of higher taxonomic levels to estimate the asymptotic number of species.

HOW MANY SPECIES OF ALGAE ARE THERE?

  • M. Guiry
  • Environmental Science, Biology
    Journal of phycology
  • 2012
An attempt is made to arrive at a more accurate estimate using species numbers in phyla and classes included in the on‐line taxonomic database AlgaeBase (http://www.algaebase.org).

How many species of Cyanobacteria are there? Using a discovery curve to predict the species number

The aim of this study was to understand the status of cyanobacterial biodiversity on a global scale and to estimate the number of still-unknown species, using a discovery curve.

Censusing marine eukaryotic diversity in the twenty-first century

  • M. LerayN. Knowlton
  • Biology
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
  • 2016
It is argued that 18S variable regions do not provide sufficient taxonomic resolution to census marine life, and it is suggested combining broad eukaryotic surveys targeting the 18S rRNA region with more taxon-focused analyses of hypervariable regions to improve the understanding of the diversity of species, the functional units of marine ecosystems.

Can We Name Earth's Species Before They Go Extinct?

It is argued that the number of species on Earth today is 5 ± 3 million, of which 1.5 million are named, and practical actions are proposed to improve taxonomic productivity and associated understanding and conservation of biodiversity.

research letter: Species richness, habitable volume, and species densities in freshwater, the sea, and on land

This work uses recent estimates of global eukaryotic species richness and published estimates of the areal coverage and depth of habitat for freshwater, marine, and terrestrial biomes to find that the marine realm harbors ~99.83% of the habitable volume on this planet.

Marine Biodiversity, Biogeography, Deep-Sea Gradients, and Conservation

Inordinate Fondness Multiplied and Redistributed: the Number of Species on Earth and the New Pie of Life

The estimates suggest that there are likely to be at least 1 to 6 billion species on Earth, and the new Pie of Life is dominated by bacteria (approximately 70–90% of species) and insects are only one of many hyperdiverse groups.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 357 REFERENCES

How Many Species Are There on Earth and in the Ocean?

It is shown that the higher taxonomic classification of species follows a consistent and predictable pattern from which the total number of species in a taxonomic group can be estimated, and when applied to all domains of life, it predicts ∼8.7 million eukaryotic species globally.

Predicting the number of known and unknown species in European seas using rates of description

There are about 36,000 species described from European seas, and it is predicted that 40,000 to 48,000 may exist, which comprises 15% of the estimated 230,000 described marine species.

Predicting total global species richness using rates of species description and estimates of taxonomic effort.

It is considered that marine species comprise only 16% of all species on Earth although the oceans contain a greater phylogenetic diversity than occurs on land, and it is predicted that there may be 1.8-2.0 million species onEarth, significantly less than some previous estimates.

How many endangered species remain to be discovered in Brazil

This work predicts the likely numbers of missing species from models of the declining numbers of species described per five-year interval for a sample of endemic flowering plants and three vertebrate groups from Brazil, showing that while the catalogues of birds and mammals are nearly complete, the numbers of amphibians may increase by 15% and the number of endemic plants by ~10 to ~50% depending on region.

The Magnitude of Global Insect Species Richness

Abstract: Recent suggestions that insects number tens of millions of species have received much attention. Little consideration, however, has been given to how such estimates compare with what else

A Census of Marine Biodiversity Knowledge, Resources, and Future Challenges

A global review of gaps in marine biodiversity knowledge and resources is overdue because society and many scientists believe the authors have discovered most species, or that doing so is out of fashion except when new technologies are employed.

Biodiversity at the Microbial Level: The Number of Free-Living Ciliates in the Biosphere

An accurate picture of ciliate diversity on a global scale will require substantial taxonomic revision of many long-established and crowded genera, together with the investigation and description of new forms from previously unexplored habitats.

Coupled biophysical global ocean model and molecular genetic analyses identify multiple introductions of cryptogenic species.

A global molecular phylogeny of a representative marine meroplanktonic taxon, the moon-jellyfish Aurelia, is compared with natural dispersion patterns predicted by a global biophysical ocean model, supporting existing evidence and identifying multiple introductions worldwide of this cryptogenic species.

Global diversity of Isopod crustaceans (Crustacea; Isopoda) in freshwater

  • G. Wilson
  • Environmental Science, Biology
    Hydrobiologia
  • 2007
Most species of freshwater isopods species and many genera are narrow range endemics, which ensures that human demand for fresh water will place these isopod crustaceans at an increasing risk of extinction, as has already happened in a few documented cases.

Diversity of eukaryotic algae

  • R. Andersen
  • Biology, Environmental Science
    Biodiversity & Conservation
  • 2004
Time consuming methods for describing new algal species, a Reduction in the number of algal systematists, a reduction in funds to support systematic research, and phycologically unexplored geographical areas act synergistically to hamper the rate of accessing algal biodiversity.
...