The MAPK signaling cascade

@article{Seger1995TheMS,
  title={The MAPK signaling cascade},
  author={Rony Seger and Edwin G. Krebs},
  journal={The FASEB Journal},
  year={1995},
  volume={9},
  pages={726 - 735}
}
The transmission of extracellular signals into their intracellular targets is mediated by a network of interacting proteins that regulate a large number of cellular processes. Cumulative efforts from many laboratories over the past decade have allowed the elucidation of one such signaling mechanism, which involves activations of several membranal signaling molecules followed by a sequential stimulation of several cytoplasmic protein kinases collectively known as mitogen‐activated protein kinase… 
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Regulation of the MAPK family members: role of subcellular localization and architectural organization.
  • G. Fanger
  • Biology
    Histology and histopathology
  • 1999
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TLDR
MEKK was expressed in all mouse tissues tested, and it phosphorylated and activated MEK, independent of Raf, a growth factor-regulated protein kinase that also phosphorylates MEK.
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TLDR
It is demonstrated that MAP kinase is only active when both tyrosyl and threonyl residues are phosphorylated and suggested therefore that the enzyme functions in vivo to integrate signals from two distinct transduction pathways.
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TLDR
Induction of MEKK does not result in the activation of MAPK, but instead stimulates the stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs)6–8 which are identical to a Jun amino-terminal kinase9,10 which in turn phosphorylates and activates SAPK.
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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