The Lutein and Zeaxanthin in Pregnancy (L-ZIP) study—carotenoid supplementation during pregnancy: ocular and systemic effects—study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

  title={The Lutein and Zeaxanthin in Pregnancy (L-ZIP) study—carotenoid supplementation during pregnancy: ocular and systemic effects—study protocol for a randomized controlled trial},
  author={Emmanuel Kofi Addo and Aruna Gorusupudi and Susan Allman and Paul S. Bernstein},
Background Lutein (L), zeaxanthin (Z), and meso -zeaxanthin (MZ), collectively called the macular pigment (MP), are dietary carotenoids that preferentially localize in the macula of the human eye. MP protects the macula from photo-oxidative damage and enhances visual function. Inadequate maternal intake of carotenoids, coupled with the placental transfer of maternal carotenoids to support fetal brain and retina development, potentially put mothers at risk of depletion systemically and in their… 

Prenatal Carotenoid Supplementation with Lutein or Zeaxanthin Ameliorates Oxygen-Induced Retinopathy (OIR) in Bco2-/- Macular Pigment Mice

Prenatal supplementation with L and Z was beneficial in a mouse OIR model and recommended in future human clinical trials to prevent ROP.

Potential roles of dietary zeaxanthin and lutein in macular health and function.

Lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin are three xanthophyll carotenoid pigments that selectively concentrate in the center of the retina. Humans cannot synthesize lutein and zeaxanthin, so these

Early Pediatric Benefit of Lutein for Maturing Eyes and Brain—An Overview

The anatomical development of the eye and the brain is reviewed, the presence and selective deposition of lutein in these organs during pregnancy and infancy is explored and, based on its functional characteristics, the latest available research on the beneficial role of lutesin in the pediatric population is presented.

Lutein as a Modulator of Oxidative Stress-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases

The current knowledge regarding the anti-inflammatory function of lutein against inflammatory diseases in various organs is discussed, including neurodegenerative disorders, eye diseases, diabetic retinopathy, osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases, skin diseases, liver injury, obesity, and colon diseases.

Nourishing Better Vision: The ARVO 2021 Mildred Weisenfeld Award Lecture

  • P. Bernstein
  • Medicine
    Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • 2022
This year’s Weisenfeld lecture was delivered pre-recorded, with 10 minutes of live questions moderated by Dr. Michael Redmond of the National Eye Institute, and approximately 1000 participants viewed this lecture during its appointed time slot.

Effect of Natural Antioxidants from Marigolds (Tagetes erecta L.) on the Oxidative Stability of Soybean Oil

In recent years, synthetic antioxidants that are widely used in foods have been shown to cause detrimental health effects, and there has been growing interest in antioxidants realised from natural



Quantification of Lutein + Zeaxanthin Presence in Human Placenta and Correlations with Blood Levels and Maternal Dietary Intake

Combined L + Z concentrations in human placenta and correlate with levels in maternal dietary intake, maternal serum, and umbilical cord blood highlight unique roles L +Z may play during pregnancy.

Nutritional manipulation of primate retinas, III: Effects of lutein or zeaxanthin supplementation on adipose tissue and retina of xanthophyll-free monkeys.

The effects of L or Z supplementation on carotenoid levels was examined in serum, adipose tissue, and retina in rhesus monkeys with no previous intake of xanthophylls to help prevent age-related macular degeneration or retard its progression.

Possible influences of lutein and zeaxanthin on the developing retina

Infants with low intake of LZ would be expected to have considerably lower macular pigment compared with infants with high LZ intake, and the available evidence suggesting that LZ could influence the developing visual system is discussed.

Vitamin A and carotenoids during pregnancy and maternal, neonatal and infant health outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

There is little consistent evidence of benefit of maternal supplementation with VA or βC during pregnancy on maternal or infant mortality, and there may also be potential for harm through increased HIV transmission in some populations.

Dietary Sources of Lutein and Zeaxanthin Carotenoids and Their Role in Eye Health

Recent scientific evidences supporting the benefits of lutein and zexanthin in preventing the onset of two major age-related eye diseases with diets rich in these carotenoids are reviewed.

Interrelationships between maternal carotenoid status and newborn infant macular pigment optical density and carotenoid status.

The findings suggest that maternal zeaxanthin status may play a more important role than lutein status in macular pigment deposition in utero and Controlled trials are needed to determine whether maternal zeAXanthin prenatal supplementation can raise infant macular pigments levels and/or improve ocular function.

Effects of Lutein and Astaxanthin Intake on the Improvement of Cognitive Functions among Healthy Adults: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

Background: Fruits and vegetables are generally rich in antioxidants such as carotenoids. Consumption of carotenoids is expected to have benefits on cognitive functions in humans. However, previous

Concentrations of tocopherols and carotenoids in maternal and cord blood plasma

Plasma levels of tocopherols, carotenoids and lipids are substantially lower at birth than in adulthood, and there is a clear relationship between γ-tocopherol levels in maternal and cord plasma.

Role of lutein and zeaxanthin in visual and cognitive function throughout the lifespan.

The evidence to date warrants further investigation into the role of lutein and zeaxanthin in visual and cognitive health throughout the lifespan.