The Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment

  title={The Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment},
  author={Peter L. Bender and Douglas G. Currie and Sherman K. Poultney and Carroll O. Alley and Robert H. Dicke and David Todd Wilkinson and Donald H. Eckhardt and James E. Faller and William M. Kaula and John-derral Mulholland and Henry H. Plotkin and Eric C. Silverberg and J. G. Williams},
  pages={229 - 238}
The lunar ranging measurements now being made at the McDonald Observatory have an accuracy of 1 nsec in round-trip travel time. This corresponds to 15 cm in the one-way distance. The use of lasers with pulse-lengths of less than 1 nsec is expected to give an accuracy of 2 to 3 cm in the next few years. A new station is under construction in Hawaii, and additional stations in other countries are either in operation or under development. It is hoped that these stations will form the basis for a… 
High-Accuracy Range Measurements To The Moon
The lunar ranging station at the University of Texas McDonald Observatory has made more than 1800 range measurements to the four lunar retroreflectors during the first six years of its operation.
Next generation Lunar Laser Ranging and its GNSS applications
Over the past forty years, Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) to the Apollo Corner Cube Reflector (CCR) arrays has supplied almost all of the significant tests of General Relativity, and provided significant
The Moon has played an important role throughout the development of human civilization. It is the only permanent natural satellite of Earth and the closest astronomical object in the universe.
Lunar Laser Ranging: A Continuing Legacy of the Apollo Program
Laser ranging analysis has provided measurements of the Earth's precession, the moon's tidal acceleration, and lunar rotational dissipation, and the verification of the principle of equivalence for massive bodies with unprecedented accuracy.
Probing Gravity with Next Generation Lunar Laser Ranging
Lunar and satellite laser ranging (LLR/SLR) are consolidated techniques which provide a precise, and at the same time, cost-effective method to determine the orbits of the Moon and of satellites
Lunar laser ranging tests of the equivalence principle
The lunar laser ranging (LLR) experiment provides precise observations of the lunar orbit that contribute to a wide range of science investigations. In particular, time series of highly accurate
Lunar ranging instrument for Chandrayaan-1
Lunar Laser Ranging Instrument (LLRI) proposed for the first Indian lunar mission Chandrayaan-1 is aimed to study the topography of the Moon’s surface and its gravitational field by precisely
Lunar Laser Ranging: a tool for general relativity, lunar geophysics and Earth science
Only a few sites on Earth are technically equipped to carry out Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) to retroreflector arrays on the surface of the Moon. Despite the weak signal, they have successfully provided
Lunar laser ranging and limits due to the Earth’s atmosphere
The ultimate limits on high accuracy laser ranging to satellites from the ground appear to be caused by the effects of the earth’s atmosphere. Other impediments in terms of lasers, timing equipment


Lunar range measurements with a high-radiance frequency-doubled neodymium-glass laser system.
Between 23 May and 23 September 1972, return pulses from the moon were obtained with the transportable lunar ranging system at Agassiz Station, Harvard College Ob­ servatory, Cambridge, Mass, by improving guiding and collimation of the transmitted beam.
Apollo 11 Laser Ranging Retro-Reflector: Initial Measurements from the McDonald Observatory
Measurements of the round-trip travel time of light from the McDonald Observatory to the Laser Ranging Retro-Reflector deployed on the moon by the Apollo 11 astronauts confirm the prediction of thermal design analyses.
A Discussion on the measurement and interpretation of changes of strain in the Earth - Potentialities of lunar laser ranging for measuring tectonic motions
  • K. Kaula
  • Physics, Geology
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences
  • 1973
Numerical error analyses containing 97 parameters indicate that the + 3 cm system would measure station motions to + 1 cm/year accuracy within a year for cast—west motions and within about 3 years for north-south motions.
Polar Motion from Laser Tracking of Artificial Satellites
Measurements of the range to the Beacon Explorer C spacecraft from a single laser tracking system at Goddard Space Flight Center have been used to determine the change in latitude of the station
The Royal Greenwich Observatory
WHEN Charles II decided in, 1675 to found an observatory for “rectifying the tables of the motions of the heavens, and the places of the fixed stars, so as to find out the so-much desired longitude
Laser Transit-Time Measurements between the Earth and the Moon with a Transportable System
A high-radiance, pulsed laser system with a transportable transmitting unit was used at Agassiz Station to measure the transit times of 25-nanosecond, 10-joule, 530-nanometer pulses from the earth to the Apollo 15 retroreflector on the moon and back.
Residual Deformation of Real Earth Models with Application to the Chandler Wobble
Summary By using Volterra's relation, it is shown that a tangential dislocation in a gravitating radially inhomogeneous sphere can be characterized by discontinuities in the stress and displacement
A Correction to the Excitation of the Chandler Wobble by Earthquakes
Summary Elastic dislocation theory has been extended to deal with point tangential displacement dislocations in a spherically symmetric, self-gravitating Earth model with a fluid core and with
BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS: Laser location of the reflector on board Lunokhod-1
A brief description is given of the apparatus and method used in laser ranging measurements of the distance from the reflector on board Lunokhod-1. The results of the first experiments are reported.
Lunar libration tables
The selenographic direction cosines of the Earth and of the pole of the ecliptic are developed in trigonometric series; the time dependence of each term enters through the Delaunay arguments. These