The Logic of Animal Conflict

@article{Smith1973TheLO,
  title={The Logic of Animal Conflict},
  author={J. Maynard Smith and GEORGE R. Price},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1973},
  volume={246},
  pages={15-18}
}
Conflicts between animals of the same species usually are of “limited war” type, not causing serious injury. This is often explained as due to group or species selection for behaviour benefiting the species rather than individuals. Game theory and computer simulation analyses show, however, that a “limited war” strategy benefits individual animals as well as the species. 

1973 Animal Conflict

Modelling Animal Behaviour in Contests: Conventions for Resource Allocation

Results indicate the evolution of coordinated behaviour that avoids unnecessary fighting in the selective pressures affecting animal contest behaviour with an evolutionary simulation model.

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Longevity suppresses conflict in animal societies

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Cross-level Interactions Between Conflict Resolution and Survival Games

The results demonstrate that inferior strategies in conflict games can be turned into superior strategies in the survival game if combined with the right parameters for foraging.
...

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