The Logic of Animal Conflict

  title={The Logic of Animal Conflict},
  author={J. Maynard Smith and GEORGE R. Price},
Conflicts between animals of the same species usually are of “limited war” type, not causing serious injury. This is often explained as due to group or species selection for behaviour benefiting the species rather than individuals. Game theory and computer simulation analyses show, however, that a “limited war” strategy benefits individual animals as well as the species. 
1973 Animal Conflict
Conflict among animals, whether characterized as dominance hierarchy, aggression, or as agonistic behavior, can be explained by game theory. Evolution drives the behavior of animals in conflict inExpand
Network effects of animal conflicts
Whether one strategy dominates or two strategies coexist on the network is determined by the structure of the network, which may be the reason that the animals choose the limited-war strategies to fight against other animals of the same species. Expand
Modelling Animal Behaviour in Contests: Conventions for Resource Allocation
Results indicate the evolution of coordinated behaviour that avoids unnecessary fighting in the selective pressures affecting animal contest behaviour with an evolutionary simulation model. Expand
Dynamics of the evolution of animal conflicts
Dynamics are introduced into Maynard Smith's game about the evolution of strategies in animal conflicts and the stabilised game offers an explanation for the development of hierarchical societies in terms of natural selection acting on individuals. Expand
A note on evolutionarily stable strategies in asymmetric animal conflicts.
  • R. Selten
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Journal of theoretical biology
  • 1980
It is shown that in game models of asymmetric animal conflicts where the opponents assume different roles like “owner” and “intruder,” evolutionarily stable strategies must be pure strategies if aExpand
The evolutionary restriction of aggression within a species: A game theory analysis
Abstract Can selection based on individual advantage result in limits to the magnitude of the damage animals may inflict on conspecifics in agonistic encounters? A formulation of intraspecificExpand
Primates--a natural heritage of conflict resolution.
The traditional notion of aggression as an antisocial instinct is being replaced by a framework that considers it a tool of competition and negotiation. When survival depends on mutual assistance,Expand
Longevity suppresses conflict in animal societies
It is shown that longevity substantially reduces the level of within-group conflict, which can lead to the evolution of peaceful animal societies if relatedness among group members is high. Expand
Cross-level Interactions Between Conflict Resolution and Survival Games
We investigate the interactions between conflict resolution and survival in multi-agent environments, where agents compete for resources. We define strategies for the “conflict game” and theExpand
Towards a dynamics of social behaviour: Strategic and genetic models for the evolution of animal conflicts
Game dynamics provides a suitable framework to accomodate for the dynamic aspects of permanence and uninvadability, to model the evolution of phenotypes with frequency dependent fitness and to relate the strategic models of sociobiology to the mechanisms of inheritance in population genetics. Expand


Group Selection and Kin Selection
It is suggested that since behaviour favours the survival of the group and not of the individual it must have evolved by a process of group selection. Expand
Aggressive Behavior among Vertebrate Animals
Social control by means of aggressive behavior is to be distinguished from social dominance, which is a more general term and refers to the determination of behavior of given individuals by other individuals, whether by aggressive behavior or by other means. Expand
Animal Dispersion in Relation to Social Behaviour.
Wynne-Edwards has written this interesting and important book as a sequel to his earlier (1962) Animal Dispersion in Relation to Social Behaviour. Reviewing it has proven to be a valuable task forExpand
The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex
Part II. Sexual Selection (continued): 12. Secondary sexual characters of fishes, amphibians and reptiles 13. Secondary sexual characters of birds 14. Birds (continued) 15. Birds (continued) 16.Expand
A statistical and information analysis of aggressive communication in the mantis shrimp Gonodactylus bredini Manning
The establishment of such a relationship seems to involve at least partially changes in response to specific behavioural acts, which may be the result of adaptation to cavity living and to potential injury during aggressive interactions. Expand
Reproductive Behavior of the Asiatic Elephant
It is concluded that the major modifications in elephant behavior involve no departures from homologous behavior patterns in other mammals but rather involve adaptations to major structural differences that the elephant has evolved including its graviportal support system and its prehensile trunk. Expand
Extension of covariance selection mathematics
  • G. Price
  • Mathematics, Medicine
  • Annals of human genetics
  • 1972
The mathematics given here applies not only to genetical selection but to selection in general, intended mainly for use in deriving general relations and constructing theories, and to clarify understanding of selection phenomena, rather than for numerical calculation. Expand
Lysergic Acid Diethylamide: Its Effects on a Male Asiatic Elephant.
A saline pond in a region in Antarctia where other lakes and ponds are frozen remains unfrozen at the prevailing low temperatures, and the ecology of the pond is unique, suggesting a nonmarine origin for the water. Expand