The Localized Geographies of Violence in the North Caucasus of Russia, 1999–2007

  title={The Localized Geographies of Violence in the North Caucasus of Russia, 1999–2007},
  author={John O’Loughlin and Frank D. W. Witmer},
  journal={Annals of the Association of American Geographers},
  pages={178 - 201}
The second Chechen war, starting in the North Caucasus in August 1999, shows few signs of a ceasefire after eleven years, although the level of violence has declined from the peaks of the war's first two years. Initially framed by both sides as a war of separatists versus the federal center, the situation is now complicated by the installation of a Moscow ally into power in Chechnya and by the splintering of the opposition into groups with diverse aims and theaters of operation. The main rebel… 
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