The Literati Rewriting of China in the Qianlong-Jiaqing Transition

  title={The Literati Rewriting of China in the Qianlong-Jiaqing Transition},
  author={Matthew W. Mosca},
  journal={Late Imperial China},
  pages={132 - 89}
Qianlong’s death in 1799 and the fall of the powerful grand councilor Heshen (1750–99), at a time when armed unrest was rising and the government’s capacities diminishing, has long been recognized as a major turning point in Qing history. One characteristic of this period, as Philip Kuhn explains, was that Han literati in and out of office gained more freedom and felt more responsibility to speak out about matters of administration and statecraft. Kuhn places this development in the context of… 


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