The Lifetime Cost of Current Human Immunodeficiency Virus Care in the United States

  title={The Lifetime Cost of Current Human Immunodeficiency Virus Care in the United States},
  author={Bruce R. Schackman and Kelly A. Gebo and Rochelle P. Walensky and Elena Losina and Tammy M Muccio and Paul E. Sax and Milton C. Weinstein and George R. Seage and Richard D Moore and Kenneth A. Freedberg},
  journal={Medical Care},
Objective:We sought to project the lifetime cost of medical care for human immunodefiency virus (HIV)-infected adults using current antiretroviral therapy (ART) standards. Methods:Medical visits and hospitalizations for any reason were from the HIV Research Network, a consortium of high-volume HIV primary care sites. HIV treatment drug regimen efficacies were from clinical guidelines and published sources; data on other drugs used were not available. In a computer simulation model, we projected… 

The Lifetime Medical Cost Savings From Preventing HIV in the United States

The economic value of HIV prevention in the United States is substantial given the high cost of HIV disease treatment, and the medical cost saved by preventing 1 HIV infection is substantial.

Newer drugs and earlier treatment: impact on lifetime cost of care for HIV-infected adults

As HIV disease is treated earlier with more efficacious drugs, survival and thus costs of care will continue to increase, and the availability in high-income countries of widely used antiretroviral drugs in generic form could reduce these costs.

Contemporary costs of HIV healthcare in the HAART era

HIV healthcare in the United States continues to be expensive, with the majority of expenditures attributable to medications, and with improved HIV survival, costs may increase and should be monitored in the future.

The Cost-Effectiveness and Population Outcomes of Expanded HIV Screening and Antiretroviral Treatment in the United States

Expanding HIV screening and treatment simultaneously offers the greatest health benefit and is cost-effective, however, even substantial expansion of HIV screenings and treatment programs is not sufficient to markedly reduce the U.S. HIV epidemic without substantial reductions in risk behavior.

Vital signs: HIV prevention through care and treatment--United States.

Prevalence of HIV testing and linkage to care are high but warrant continued effort, and increasing the percentages of HIV-infected persons who remain in HIV care, achieve viral suppression, and receive prevention counseling requires additional effort.

Projected Lifetime Healthcare Costs Associated with HIV Infection

If 3,000 MSM had been infected with HIV in 2013, then future lifetime costs relating to HIV care is likely to be in excess of £1 billion, and it is imperative for investment into prevention programmes to be continued or scaled-up in settings with good access to HIV Care services.

The Cost-Effectiveness of Antiretroviral Therapy for Treating HIV Disease in the Caribbean

In the OECS, ART is cost-effective by international standards and reducing second-line ART costs increases cost-effectiveness and affordability, but additional funding is required to sustain lifetime care for currently infected persons.

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Early vs Late Diagnosis of HIV-Infected Patients in South Carolina

Although individuals with lower CD4 counts at diagnosis had a lower discounted LCC, they had more lost quality-adjusted life-years, more lifetime HIV transmissions, and lower additional life expectancy.

HIV economic burden of illness in the Veterans Health Administration population

New health-care costs and resource utilization estimates associated with the burden of HIV in the VHA population are offered and a 1:1 propensity score matching (PSM) was used to adjust for baseline differences.

Cost of Treatment in a US Commercially Insured, HIV-1–Infected Population

Despite modern advances in antiretroviral therapy and medical care, direct medical costs of HIV-1–infected patients increase after treatment switch and with lower CD4 counts, consistent with previous costing studies.



The cost effectiveness of combination antiretroviral therapy for HIV disease.

Treatment of HIV infection with a combination of three antiretroviral drugs is a cost-effective use of resources.

The lifetime cost of treating a person with HIV.

The cost of treating a person with AIDS, which has risen rapidly in the past, has fallen as a result of a reduction in the use of inpatient hospital services.

Costs of HIV medical care in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.

Although protease inhibitor-containing antiretroviral regimens are being used by only about half of Medicaid-insured patients, when they are used, there are significantly lower hospital inpatient and community care costs, as well as lower costs associated with the treatment of opportunistic illness.

The care of HIV-infected adults in the United States. HIV Cost and Services Utilization Study Consortium.

It is found that most HIV-infected adults who were receiving medical care had advanced disease, and the patient population was disproportionately male, black, and poor.

Distribution of health care expenditures for HIV-infected patients.

  • Ray Y. ChenN. Accortt M. Saag
  • Medicine, Political Science
    Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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Physician reimbursements, even with 100% billing and collections, are inadequate to support the activities of most clinics providing HIV care and have important implications for the continued support of HIV treatment programs in the United States.

Expenditures for the care of HIV-infected patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.

The total cost of care for adults with HIV infection has declined since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy, and there are large variations in expenditures across subgroups of patients.

Long‐Term Impact of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy on HIV‐Related Health Care Costs

There was an increase in the total monthly cost of caring for HIV patients, primarily due to antiretroviral treatment costs, but these costs were offset by a marked decrease in inpatient‐related costs.

Updates of cost of illness and quality of life estimates for use in economic evaluations of HIV prevention programs.

  • D. HoltgraveS. Pinkerton
  • Medicine, Political Science
    Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes and human retrovirology : official publication of the International Retrovirology Association
  • 1997
The net effect of increases in the medical costs of care and treatment saved by averting an HIV infection and in QALYs makes HIV prevention a relatively more cost-effective strategy than other, non-HIV health-related programs.

Declining morbidity and mortality among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. HIV Outpatient Study Investigators.

The recent declines in morbidity and mortality due to AIDS are attributable to the use of more intensive antiretroviral therapies.

Effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on time to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or death using marginal structural models.

To estimate the net (i.e., overall) effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on time to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or death, the authors used inverse