The contributions of Emmy Noether to particle physics fall into two categories. One is given under the rubric of Noether’s theorem, and the other may be described as her important contributions to modern mathematics. In physics literature, the terminology Noether’s theorem is used to refer to one or another of two theorems, or their converses, proved by Noether. These will be discussed along with an historical account of how they were discovered and what their impact has been. This paper also gives, for physicists, an overview of the important role of Emmy Noether’s work in the development of modern mathematics. In addition a brief biography is given. Typeset using REVTEX ∗Presented at the International Conference on THE HISTORY OF ORIGINAL IDEAS AND BASIC DISCOVERIES IN PARTICLE PHYSICS, Erice, Italy, 29 July 4 August 1994. To be published in the Proceedings of the Conference.