The Lewis Hoard of Gaming Pieces: A Re-examination of their Context, Meanings, Discovery and Manufacture

@article{Caldwell2009TheLH,
  title={The Lewis Hoard of Gaming Pieces: A Re-examination of their Context, Meanings, Discovery and Manufacture},
  author={David H. Caldwell and Mark A. Hall and Caroline Wilkinson},
  journal={Medieval Archaeology},
  year={2009},
  volume={53},
  pages={155 - 203}
}
Abstract Almost 180 years of scholarship on the Lewis chessmen have given us a solid foundation of understanding, primarily based upon their art-historical analysis. Taking a more interdisciplinary approach (combining elements of art history with archaeology and history), this paper focuses on some over-looked themes — primarily the archaeological, gaming and political contexts of the 12th- and 13th-century North Sea world — and some more familiar themes but in a new light. We suggest a more… 
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Biodegradation of ivory (natural apatite): possible involvement of fungal activity in biodeterioration of the Lewis Chessmen.
TLDR
The experiments have shown that the possibility of damage to ivory being caused by fungi is realistic and contributes to the authors' knowledge regarding the possible origins of the surface damage observed on early medieval sculptures made largely from walrus tusks, referred to as 'the Lewis hoard of gaming pieces'.
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