The Lesser-Known Protostome Taxa: An Introduction and a Tribute to Robert P. Higgins1

  title={The Lesser-Known Protostome Taxa: An Introduction and a Tribute to Robert P. Higgins1},
  author={James R. Garey},
  booktitle={Integrative and comparative biology},
  • J. Garey
  • Published in
    Integrative and comparative…
    1 July 2002
  • Environmental Science
Abstract Most biologists are familiar only with a few of the approximately 40 extant animal phyla. The purpose of this symposium was to renew interest in the lesser-known invertebrate taxa, encourage their use in research and teaching and to promote the relevance of high-level systematic studies. This paper reviews the two major views of metazoan evolutionary relationships with particular attention to the lesser-known taxa and to some of the new and/or conflicting terminology used in current… 

Introduction to the Symposium1

A symposium on the ‘‘Lower Metazoa’’ was held in Pacific Grove, California, and the premise that data from the basal metazoans will be decisive in testing various hypotheses and theories of the origin of animals in general and bilaterians in particular remains intact.

Evolutionary history of the Tricladida and the Platyhelminthes: an up-to-date phylogenetic and systematic account.

An up-to-date summary of the main phylogenetic changes and novelties of the Tricladida systematics, with some comments on their evolutionary implications.


  • A. Kohn
  • The Natural History of The Bahamas
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The new edition of Brusca and Brusca’s Invertebrates propels it into the lead as the most up-to-date of the large (;1,000 pages), thorough invertebrate biology textbooks, suitable for two-quarter or

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Introduction to the symposium.

The thesis of this year’s educational symposium was that veterinary educators, including clinicians, owe animals, their owners, and veterinary students the assurance that clinical competence will be evaluated effectively.

Filogènia Molecular dels Bilaterals: una aproximació multigènica

S:Als darrers 10 anys, el nostre coneixement de l'evolucio dels animals ha estat objecte d'una revolucio degut a l'aplicacio de la Biologia Molecular al camp de la Filogenia, que ha rebutjat algunes



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Relations of the new phylum Cycliophora

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Evidence from 18S ribosomal DNA that the lophophorates are protostome animals

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Combining molecular and morphological analyses of Bilateria leads to a tree with Platyhelminthes, Rotifera, Acanthocephala and Gnathostomulida (and probably Gastrotricha) as a sister group to the annelid-mollusc lineage of the Spiralia.

Evidence for a clade of nematodes, arthropods and other moulting animals

The results suggest that ecdysis (moulting) arose once and support the idea of a new clade, Ecdysozoa, containing moulting animals: arthropods, tardigrades, onychophorans, nematodes, Nematomorphs, kinor-hynchs and priapulids.

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Molecular evidence that echiurans and pogonophorans are derived annelids.

  • D. McHugh
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1997
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Triploblastic relationships with emphasis on the acoelomates and the position of Gnathostomulida, Cycliophora, Plathelminthes, and Chaetognatha: a combined approach of 18S rDNA sequences and morphology.

For the first time, a data analysis recognizes a clade of acoelomates, the Platyzoa, which is expanded to include the enigmatic phylum Cycliophora, as sister group to Syndermata.

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