The Leisure-Noise Dilemma: Hearing Loss or Hearsay? What Does the Literature Tell Us?

  title={The Leisure-Noise Dilemma: Hearing Loss or Hearsay? What Does the Literature Tell Us?},
  author={Lyndal Carter and Warwick Williams and Deborah A Black and Anita Bundy},
  journal={Ear and Hearing},
The authors undertook a review of the literature, focussing on publications describing the following: (1) Pure tone threshold data for adolescents/young adults; (2) Measurements/estimates of noise exposure from leisure activities; and (3) The relationship between hearing threshold levels (HTLs) and leisure-noise exposure. There is a large volume of published materials relevant to these topics, and opinion among authors regarding the relationship between leisure-noise exposure and HTLs varies… 
The implications of leisure noise for young people with hearing impairment.
The authors undertook a review of the literature, focusing on publications describing the following: 1) Pure tone threshold data for adolescents/young adults; 2) Measurements/estimates of noise
More to Lose? Noise-Risk Perceptions of Young Adults with Hearing Impairment.
Most participants with HI and NH regarded leisure noise as a health hazard but rated their own noise-injury risk as lower than that of their peer group, and the use of PHPs was low overall, and many participants withHI reported using hearing aids during noisy leisure activities.
Hearing in young adults. Part II: The effects of recreational noise exposure
There were no significant differences in hearing between groups with low, intermediate, and high recreational noise exposure, Nevertheless, a long-term assessment of young adults′ hearing in relation to recreational noise Exposure is needed.
Hearing and leisure noise
No correlation was found between cumulative life time noise exposure and audiometric PTA or OAE parameters, however, tinnitus was found to frequently occur at what would be considered as low exposure levels.
Parent Perceptions of Children's Leisure and the Risk of Damaging Noise Exposure†
Parents may benefit from support in identifying and managing concerns about the impact of hearing impairment on their children's leisure participation and how comfortable parents felt endorsing their child's participation in a range of everyday leisure activities, some which may involve noise exposure.
Leisure Noise Exposure and Associated Health-Risk Behavior in Adolescents: An Explanatory Study among Two Different Educational Programs in Flanders
The most important hearing-related symptoms after noise exposure were tinnitus and noise sensitivity, and listening to PMPs was most frequently reported with regard to leisure noise exposure.
Listening Effort Measured Using a Dual-task Paradigm in Adults With Different Amounts of Noise Exposure
This study is a first exploration of the effects of different amounts of noise exposure on listening effort showing that, listening effort is increased in subjects with high noise exposure compared with subjects with low and medium noise exposure.
The Relevance of Leisure Noise to Hearing Threshold Shifts: A Longitudinal Analysis Among Adolescents.
Male adolescents and those attending secondary general schools, with graduation following completion of ninth or 10th grade, had a greater likelihood of developing hearing threshold shifts and prevention programs should focus on these risk groups.
No Reliable Association Between Recreational Noise Exposure and Threshold Sensitivity, Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emission Amplitude, or Word-in-Noise Performance in a College Student Population
No reliable relationships between common recreational sound exposure or previous noise-induced changes in hearing were found during analysis of threshold sensitivity, DPOAE amplitude, or WIN performance in this cohort, which limits generalizability of the results.
The Test–Retest Reliability of Questionnaires Regarding Attitudes and Beliefs Toward Noise, Hearing Loss, and Hearing Protector Devices in Young Adults
Reliable test–retest measurements of the YANS and BAHPHL instrument can be performed and can be used in longitudinal studies to explore young adults’ changes in attitudes toward noise, hearing loss, and hearing protection, with or without an educational intervention.


Damage to hearing arising from leisure noise. Medical Research Council Institute of Hearing Research.
  • Medicine
    British journal of audiology
  • 1986
The main findings of a review of the literature on leisure noise (sociacusis) are presented, including the need for a large, random-sample, whole-population survey in the U.K. of the numbers exposed and the patterns of exposure to leisure noise in general and amplified music in particular.
Leisure noise exposure: Participation trends, symptoms of hearing damage, and perception of risk
Active young adults who engage in noisy activities are showing early signs of hearing damage and perceive the risk associated with their activities, and the challenge for researchers and hearing health practitioners is to convert self-perceived risk into positive hearing health behaviours for long-term hearing health.
Estimating Young Australian Adults’ Risk of Hearing Damage From Selected Leisure Activities
It is recommended that nightclub operators reduce noise levels, display warnings, and provide earplugs for patrons and employees and those at risk of hearing damage from leisure-noise exposure are advised to focus their attention on those young adults who are most at risk.
[Hearing loss in adolescents due to leisure noise. The OHRKAN study].
OHRKAN is a prospective cohort study aimed to produce information on the prevalence of hearing loss as well as its risk factors in adolescents and young adults in Regensburg, Germany.
Young people: Their noise and music exposures and the risk of hearing loss
  • T. Morata
  • Medicine
    International journal of audiology
  • 2007
Music exposure has made music exposure the most studied source of excessive sound exposure to children and youths in several countries, and not all evidence available confirms increased risk with increasing exposures, and the possibility of a toughening protective effect of such exposures has been suggested.
Noise exposure from leisure activities: a review.
  • W. W. Clark
  • Physics
    The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
  • 1991
Although all activities listed above have the potential for dangerous levels of noise exposure, the most serious threat to hearing comes from recreational hunting or target shooting.
Does health promotion work in relation to noise?
Whether health promotion works in relation to noise may be reflected by permanent hearing threshold shift development in population studies, which increasingly find non-normal high-frequency hearing including the characteristic NIHL-"notch" around 6 kHz also in subjects who do not report noise exposure incidents or activities.
Ear damage caused by leisure noise.
The legislature ought to set limits for sound levels in discos, concert halls and for music equipment and toys by establishing the necessary standards and regulations to protect children, young people and adults.
Noise‐induced hearing loss in young adults: The role of personal listening devices and other sources of leisure noise
The majority of young users of personal listening devices are at low risk for substantive NIHL, and even subtle deficits may contribute to unequivocal hearing loss with continued exposure.
Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in School-Age Children: What Do We Know?
Longitudinal epidemiologic research is needed that will measure children's sound exposures and hearing outcomes within the same study to determine the extent of the problem and to improve understanding of possible causal pathways.