The Late Precambrian fossil Kimberella is a mollusc-like bilaterian organism

  title={The Late Precambrian fossil Kimberella is a mollusc-like bilaterian organism},
  author={Mikhail A. Fedonkin and Benjamin M. Waggoner},
The fossil Kimberella quadrata was originally described from late Precambrian rocks of southern Australia. Reconstructed as a jellyfish, it was later assigned to the cubozoans (‘box jellies’), and has been cited as a clear instance of an extant animal lineage present before the Cambrian. Until recently, Kimberella was known only from Australia, with the exception of some questionable north Indian specimens. We now have over thirty-five specimens of this fossil from the Winter Coast of the White… 

Paleontological evidence for the supposed precambrian occurrence of mollusks

AbstarctThe paper discusses a group of the Late Vendian fossils supposedly related to mollusks. The fossils include imprints with some anatomical characteristics of mollusks, traces resembling

Precambrian animal life: probable developmental and adult cnidarian forms from Southwest China.

The new observations reported in this paper indicate the existence of a diverse and already differentiated cnidarian fauna, long before the Cambrian evolutionary event.

An Early Cambrian problematic fossil: Vetustovermis and its possible affinities

All the characters displayed in this 525 million-year old soft-bodied animal fail to demonstrate clear affinity with molluscs or any other known extant or extinct animal groups, but argue for representing an independently evolved animal group, which flourished in Early Cambrian and possibly in Middle Cambrian time.

Small Bilaterian Fossils from 40 to 55 Million Years Before the Cambrian

Ten phosphatized specimens of a small animal displaying clear bilaterian features have been recovered from the Doushantuo Formation, China, and provide the first evidence confirming the phylogenetic inference that Bilateria arose well before the Cambrian.

New reconstruction of Kimberella, problematic Vendian metazoan

Six groups of fossil remains of Kimberella quadrata are described, which represent the imprints of the body in different types of preservation and also the feeding traces and mucus secretions.

Ediacara-type fossils in Cambrian sediments

Fossil assemblages that preserve soft-bodied organisms are essential for our understanding of the composition and diversity of past life. The worldwide terminal Proterozoic Ediacara-type fossils

A Fresh Look at Dickinsonia: Removing It from Vendobionta

This research is not only removing Dickinsonia from Vendobionta, but also bringing the fossil record of ctenophores forward to 20 million years before the Cambrian “explosion”.

Origin and the Early Evolution of the Phylum Mollusca

  • P. Parkhaev
  • Geology, Geography
    Paleontological Journal
  • 2017
The paper gives an overview of the modern hypotheses on the origin of the phylum Mollusca and the formation of its main classes. The Cambrian stage of molluscan evolution is characterized based on

A soft-bodied mollusc with radula from the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale

Odontogriphus omalus is interpreted to be members of an early stem-group mollusc lineage that probably originated in the Neoproterozoic Ediacaran Period, providing support for the retention of a biomat-based grazing community from the late Precambrian Period until at least the Middle Cambrian.

Lower Cambrian Vendobionts from China and Early Diploblast Evolution

A frondlike fossil, Stromatoveris, is described from the Lower Cambrian Chengjiang Lagerstätte (Yunnan, China) that is strikingly similar to Ediacaran vendobionts and has important implications for the early evolution of this phylum and related diploblasts, some of which independently evolved a frondose habit.



Articulated halkieriids from the Lower Cambrian of north Greenland

METAZOAN skeletons appear abruptly in the fossil record near the base of the Cambrian (∼540MyrBP (before present))1,2. In the initial stages of diversification, familiar skeletal remains such as

Late Precambrian bilaterians: grades and clades.

  • J. W. Valentine
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1994
Evidence from the fossil record can be combined with that from molecular phylogenetic trees to suggest that the last common ancestor of (i) protostomes and deuterostomes was a roundish worm with a blood vascular system and (ii) of arthropods and annelids was similar, with a hydrostatic hemocoel, among trace makers of the late Precambrian.

Articulated Halkieriids from the Lower Cambrian of North Greenland and their Role in Early Protostome Evolution

The hypothesis of halkieriids and their relatives having a key role in annelid-brachiopod-mollusc evolution is in accord with some earlier proposals and recent evidence from molecular biology, but casts doubt on a number of favoured concepts.

The Phylum Vendobionta: a sister group of the Eumetazoa?

It is hypothesized that the Vendobionta are cnidarian-like organisms that lacked cnidae, and this analysis differs from existing interpretations of the Ediacaran fossils as ancestors of extant cNidarians in that it does not regard any of these forms as either polypoid or medusoid.


With only two exceptions, this soft-bodied fauna can be grouped naturally into two categories, ‘non-resistant’ and ‘resistant’. Non-resistant animals (mostly medusoids) collapsed or decayed before

The dawn of animal life

Vendobionta and Psammocorallia: lost constructions of Precambrian evolution

  • A. Seilacher
  • Environmental Science
    Journal of the Geological Society
  • 1992
The non-availability of biomineralized skeletons and low levels of predation led Vendian evolution along strange avenues. The Ediacara-type Vendobionta appear to represent a kingdom, in which foliate

Were the Ediacaran fossils lichens?

  • G. Retallack
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 1994
Ediacaran fossils are taphonomically similar to impressions of fossil plants common in quartz sandstones, and the relief of the fossils suggests that they were as resistant to compaction during

The Origin and Early Evolution of Metazoa

A generally conical cutting head for an underwater dredger includes a plurality of helical cutting arms having teeth mounted thereon that removes a symmetrical piece of soil and is not subjected to loads parallel to the local section of the contour line.