The Kurdish genocide in Iraq: the Security-Anfal and the Identity-Anfal

  title={The Kurdish genocide in Iraq: the Security-Anfal and the Identity-Anfal},
  author={Sherko Kirmanj and A. Rafaat},
  journal={National Identities},
  pages={163 - 183}
ABSTRACT From February to September 1988, Iraqi Kurds were subjected to a genocidal operation by the Iraqi government, known as the Anfal operation. The operation lasted just over seven months but it had a devastating impact on most parts of rural Kurdistan in Iraq, resulting in the killing of thousands of Kurdish civilians. Most scholars have overlooked the multiple strategies, dimensions of and motivations for the operations and have mostly focused on and/or examined the military and… 
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