The Korsakoff syndrome: a neurochemical perspective

@article{Mcentee1990TheKS,
  title={The Korsakoff syndrome: a neurochemical perspective},
  author={William J. Mcentee and Robert G. Mair},
  journal={Trends in Neurosciences},
  year={1990},
  volume={13},
  pages={340-344}
}

Functional Neuroimaging of Cortical Dysfunction in Alcoholic Korsakoff's Syndrome

The evidence did not support the hypothesis that parallel brain dysfunctions are responsible for the similar amnesic symptomatology after hippocampal and diencephalic damage, and it is hypothesized that theAmnesic dysfunction of Korsakoff's syndrome depends on a disruption of thalamocortical interactions that mediate a function critical for normal memory storage.

Alcoholic Korsakoff’s Syndrome

Observations of brain images using techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computerized tomography) generally provide evidence of a relationship between extensive alcohol consumption and structural brain changes.

Therapeutic Effects of an Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor (Donepezil) on Memory in Wernicke–Korsakoff's Disease

Cholinergic treatment with the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil does not seem to provide marked beneficial effects in patients with WKD in this small, descriptive study, which may be because pathways mediating channel and state-dependent functions are impaired in this disease, and enhancement of state- dependent cholinergic transmission may not be sufficient.

Korsakoff's syndrome, cognition and clonidine

Clonidine treatment resulted in no significant improvement over placebo on any of the cognitive measures employed, which contradict previous smaller studies which had suggested that chronic treatment with clonidine had a memory-enhancing effect in Korsakoff's syndrome.

Chronic alcoholics without Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome or cirrhosis do not lose serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus.

The effect of chronic alcohol consumption on the serotonergic system, in the absence of WKS or liver disease, seems to be functional rather than neuropathological.

The role of thalamo-frontocortical mechanisms in measures of spatial learning and memory

Rodents with lesions of the L-IML were impaired on all three tasks, performing significantly worse than the cortical groups on RAM and DNMTS, suggesting that neither of these areas alone can account for the full complement of deficits observed in animals with L- IML lesions.

Age-Related Cognitive Deficits and Neurotransmitters

This work has shown that the aged monkey model has been especially important for examining age-related changes that cannot be observed reliably or ethically in humans.

Glutamate: its role in learning, memory, and the aging brain

Data concerning the role of excitatory amino acids in the processes of learning and memory and in the pathogenesis and treatment of disorders thereof are reviewed.
...

References

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Neurochemical pathology in Korsakoff's psychosis

It is argued that norepinephrinecontaining neurons are selectively damaged in Korsakoff s psychosis and that lesions of brain monoamine-containing neurons cause specific cognitive impairments, not global dementia.

Central nervous system catecholamine metabolism in Korsakoff's psychosis

No differences were demonstrated in lumbar cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of norepinephrine or its major metabolite, 3‐methoxy‐4‐hydroxypheny glycol, in patients with clinically well characterized Korsakoff's psychosis and 8 age‐matched healthy, normal volunteers.

Memory enhancement in Korsakoff's psychosis by clonidine: Further evidence for a noradrenergic deficit

Of the drugs tested, only clonidine, a putative alphanoradrenergic agonist, was associated with significant improvement in memory, consistent with the hypothesis that damage to ascending norepinephrine‐containing neurons in the brainstem and diencephalon may be the basis for amnesia in Korsakoffs psychosis.

Effective pharmacotherapy of alcoholic amnestic disorder with fluvoxamine. Preliminary findings.

Improvements in memory were significantly correlated with reductions in levels of cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, suggesting that facilitation of serotonergic neurotransmission may ameliorate the episodic memory failure in patients with alcohol amnestic disorder.

Memory disorder in Korsakoff's psychosis: a neuropathological and neuropsychological investigation of two cases.

The question of the minimal lesion for the alcoholic Korsakoff amnesic state, and some aspects of the related anatomy, is discussed in the context of other reports in the literature which are, however, difficult to assess in the absence of details of the specificity, severity and character of the memory disorders.

Neurochemical specificity of learning: dopamine and motor learning.

The hypothesis that the acquisition of motor learning skills is related to brain DA activity was tested by correlating the ability of a group of Korsakoff patients to learn two different motor tasks with the concentrations of CSF metabolites of NE, DA, and serotonin.

Diencephalic amnesia: a reappraisal.

A study of a patient who developed severe amnesia in association with bilateral metastatic tumour invasion of the medial and posterior thalamus is reported, which led to further discussion of this unsettled issue.

Alpha 2-adrenergic mechanisms in prefrontal cortex associated with cognitive decline in aged nonhuman primates.

It is demonstrated that alpha-adrenergic systems contribute to cognitive function and a new strategy for treating memory disorders in aged humans is suggested.