The Kestrel TTS text normalization system

  title={The Kestrel TTS text normalization system},
  author={Peter Ebden and Richard Sproat},
  journal={Natural Language Engineering},
This paper describes the Kestrel text normalization system, a component of the Google textto-speech synthesis (TTS) system. At the core of Kestrel are text-normalization grammars that are compiled into libraries of weighted finite-state transducers (WFSTs). While the use of WFSTs for text normalization is itself not new, Kestrel differs from previous systems in its separation of the initial tokenization and classification phase of analysis from verbalization. Input text is first tokenized and… CONTINUE READING
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