The Justifications and Controversies of Panendoscopy – A Review

@article{Levine1992TheJA,
  title={The Justifications and Controversies of Panendoscopy – A Review},
  author={Brett Levine and Erik Woge Nielsen},
  journal={ENT Journal},
  year={1992},
  volume={71},
  pages={335 - 343}
}
The triple endoscopies of direct laryngoscopy, bronchoscopy, and esophagoscopy, commonly known as panendoscopy, are frequent surgical procedures in otorhinolaryngology. Their purpose is to diagnose additional primary malignancies. The incidence of multiple synchronous primary malignancies has been reported between 3% and 13%. This unusually high rate is attributed to the process of field cancerization in which an anatomical region is exposed to a surface carcinogen and multifocal areas undergo… 

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