BACKGROUND Posttraumatic shoulder dislocations with glenoid rim fractures show high rates of dislocation recurrence. For glenoid rim defects exceeding a certain size, several investigators recommend bone grafting. Few reports on anatomical glenoid reconstruction addressing this problem are published. HYPOTHESIS Anatomical glenoid reconstruction by the J-bone graft creates permanent joint stability without a clinically relevant loss of motion. STUDY DESIGN Case series; Level of evidence, 4. METHODS Forty-seven shoulders with glenoid rim fractures after recurrent anterior dislocation were stabilized by a J-bone graft. For clinical outcome, motion and strength compared with the uninjured shoulder, as well as sports activity, were recorded. The Rowe score and the Constant-Murley score were used for scoring. In cases of follow-up exceeding 6 years, computed tomography scans were obtained and compared to preoperative radiographs. RESULTS The mean Rowe score was 94.3 for the affected shoulder and 96.8 for the uninjured side. The Constant score reached 93.5 and 95 points, respectively. Loss of external rotation was 4.36 degrees in adduction and 3.19 degrees at 90 degrees of abduction. The computed tomography evaluation included 24 shoulders at a mean follow-up of 106.2 months. There were no recurrences of instability and 1 traumatic graft fracture. Of the 19 patients in whom arthropathy was present at follow-up, 11 had arthrosis before surgery. CONCLUSION The J-bone graft is capable of creating a stable shoulder joint without causing extensive loss of motion on the long term in patients with traumatic glenoid rim fractures after shoulder dislocation. In some patients, mild to moderate arthropathy develops despite anatomical glenoid reconstruction.