The Isotopic Composition of the Elements

  title={The Isotopic Composition of the Elements},
  author={F. Vanhaecke and K. Kyser},
Early in the twentieth century, Rutherford realized that Thomson’s late nineteenth century plain cake model for the atom, describing the atom as consisting of electrons floating around in a positive sphere, had to be replaced by a “Saturnian” model, describing the atom as consisting of a small central nucleus surrounded by electrons, rotating on rings [1]. This view was supported by a study of the behavior of a beam of a particles (see below, particles resembling the nucleus of an He atom, thus… Expand
Chromium Isotope Geochemistry
Chromium consists of four stable isotopes (50Cr, 52Cr, 53Cr and 54Cr) with natural abundances of 4.35%, 83.79%, 9.50% and 2.36%, respectively (Rossman and Taylor 1998). Among these four isotopes,Expand
Author ’ s Accepted Manuscript Neutron Capture Cross Sections of 70 Zn and the Decay of
Radiative neutron capture was studied in the 70 Zn(n,γ) 71m,g Zn reaction in order to determine the thermal neutron capture cross sections for the reactions. The resonance integrals were alsoExpand
Neutron capture cross sections of 70Zn and the decay of 71mZn.
  • K. Krane
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Applied radiation and isotopes : including data, instrumentation and methods for use in agriculture, industry and medicine
  • 2017
Through high-resolution γ-ray spectrometry in the 71mZn decay, a new set of γ -ray energies and intensities was obtained of roughly an order of magnitude greater precision than the previous set, and several transitions new to the decay scheme are proposed. Expand
Boron isotopic composition as a provenance indicator for the flux raw material in Roman natron glass
Abstract Boron is a trace element present in natron glass, which largely enters the glass via the flux. Therefore, the B isotope ratio is targeted as a means of provenancing this flux. In this work,Expand
Shock waves structure propagating through heavy noble gases. Temperature dependence
The structure of planar shock waves propagating through argon, xenon and krypton have been calculated using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method for Mach numbers 2, 5, and 10. The upstreamExpand
Distribution of Radionuclides in the Leachates for Several Rock Types at Different Time Intervals
In the present study, the behavior of the different isotopes activity concentrations for three different rock samples (siltstone, shale and sandy dolomite) as well as in the different leachates ofExpand
Re-evaluation of Rapakivi Petrogenesis: Source Constraints from the Hf Isotope Composition of Zircon in the Rapakivi Granites and Associated Mafic Rocks of Southern Finland
The 1650^1540 Ma rapakivi granites and associated basic rocks (e.g. gabbro^anorthosites) in southern Finland intrude the local juvenile Paleoproterozoic crust with little isotopic contrast to theExpand
Petrologic and geochemical characterization of São Jorge island volcanism, Azores
The island of São Jorge (38o 45’ 24’’ N 28o 20’ 44’’W and 38o 33’ 00’’ N 27o 44’ 32’’ W) is one of the nine islands of the Azores Archipelago that is rooted in the Azores Plateau, a wide and complexExpand
Application of non-traditional stable isotopes in analytical ecogeochemistry assessed by MC ICP-MS - A critical review
This review focuses on the development of isotope research in ecogeochemistry, the requirements for successful detection of small isotopic shifts, and highlights the most recent and innovative applications in the field. Expand
Chromium isotope signature during continental crust subduction recorded in metamorphic rocks
The chromium isotope compositions of 27 metamorphic mafic rocks with varying metamorphic degrees from eastern China were systematically measured to investigate the Cr isotope behavior duringExpand


Mass spectrometry and isotopes: a century of research and discussion.
The isotope problem was finally settled, but more accurate mass measurements showed that even isotopic weights differed to some extent from the whole numbers, which was the prerequisite for the discovery that isotopic ratios varied somewhat in nature. Expand
Fifty Years of Radiocarbon Dating
ince the 1350s, when a linen fabric bearing ticles eventually rain down on the earth and full-scale front and back images of what apstrike molecules of atmospheric gas, producing peared to be aExpand
Atomic Structure
IN a letter to NATURE of November 25 last Dr. Norman Campbell discusses the problem of the possible consistency of the assumptions about the motion and arrangement of electrons in the atom underlyingExpand
The scattering of α and β particles by matter and the structure of the atom
§ 1. It is well known that the α and the β particles suffer deflexions from their rectilinear paths by encounters with atoms of matter. This scattering is far more marked for the β than for the αExpand
Preparative scale mass spectrometry: A brief history of the calutron
Calutrons were developed in the laboratory of E. O. Lawrence at the University of California at Berkeley. They were a modification of the cyclotrons he had invented and used in his Noble PrizeExpand
Isotopic Compositions of the Elements, 2001
The Commission on Atomic Weights and Isotopic Abundances of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry completed its last review of the isotopic compositions of the elements as determinedExpand
Introduction to U-series Geochemistry
During the last century, the Earth Sciences underwent two major revolutions in understanding. The first was the recognition of the great antiquity of the Earth and the second was the development ofExpand
▪ Abstract The Earth has a radiogenic W-isotopic composition compared to chondrites, demonstrating that it formed while 182Hf (half-life 9 Myr) was extant in Earth and decaying to 182W. This impliesExpand
Nuclear Size and Shape Effects in Chemical Reactions. Isotope Chemistry of the Heavy Elements
The theory of the isotopic enrichment factor is extended to include hyperfine splitting and the nuclear field shift. It is shown that hyperfine splitting is an order of magnitude too small to explainExpand
On a Diffuse Reflection of the $ \alpha $-Particles
When β -particles fall on a plate, a strong radiation emerges from the same side of the plate as that on which the β -particles fall. This radiation is regarded by many observers as a secondaryExpand