The Islamophobia Scale: Instrument Development and Initial Validation

  title={The Islamophobia Scale: Instrument Development and Initial Validation},
  author={Sherman A. Lee and Jeffrey A. Gibbons and John M. Thompson and Hussam S. Timani},
  journal={The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion},
  pages={105 - 92}
Opinion poll research suggests that a significant number of Westerners hold negative and fearful perceptions toward Muslims and their religion. Although evidence of Islamophobia has been documented in a number of poll studies, no psychometrically based, multifaceted measure that focuses exclusively on fear related attitudes and is not confounded with a particular group currently exists in the scientific literature. The authors of this study describe the development and psychometric properties… 
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