The Islamophobia Scale: Instrument Development and Initial Validation

@article{Lee2009TheIS,
  title={The Islamophobia Scale: Instrument Development and Initial Validation},
  author={Sherman A. Lee and Jeffrey A. Gibbons and John M. Thompson and Hussam S. Timani},
  journal={The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion},
  year={2009},
  volume={19},
  pages={105 - 92}
}
Opinion poll research suggests that a significant number of Westerners hold negative and fearful perceptions toward Muslims and their religion. Although evidence of Islamophobia has been documented in a number of poll studies, no psychometrically based, multifaceted measure that focuses exclusively on fear related attitudes and is not confounded with a particular group currently exists in the scientific literature. The authors of this study describe the development and psychometric properties… 
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Defining and Researching Islamophobia
  • Erik Bleich
  • Sociology, Political Science
    Review of Middle East Studies
  • 2012
Islamophobia was originally developed as a concept in the late 1990s by political activists to draw attention to rhetoric and actions directed at Islam and Muslims in Western liberal democracies. In
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