The Iowa model: a proposed model for nursing administration.

@article{Johnson1991TheIM,
  title={The Iowa model: a proposed model for nursing administration.},
  author={Michael Johnson and Diane L. Gardner and Karen C Kelly and Meridean Maas and J. C. McCloskey},
  journal={Nursing economic\$},
  year={1991},
  volume={9 4},
  pages={255-62}
}
The purpose of the Iowa Model is to serve both as a heuristic device and as a framework for articulating knowledge for nursing administration research, practice, and education. The model delineates two domains of knowledge (systems and outcomes), each with three levels (patient aggregates, the organization, and the health care system). Concepts useful for knowledge development are identified for each level. Practice, research, and curricular applications of the model are made.