The Interaction of Climate Change and Agency in the Collapse of Civilizations ca. 2300–2000 BC

@article{Wiener2014TheIO,
  title={The Interaction of Climate Change and Agency in the Collapse of Civilizations ca. 2300–2000 BC},
  author={Malcolm H. Wiener},
  journal={Radiocarbon},
  year={2014},
  volume={56},
  pages={S1 - S16}
}
Human history has been marked by major episodes of climate change and human response, sometimes accompanied by independent innovations. In the Bronze Age, the sequencing of causes and reactions is dependent in part on dendrochronology and radiocarbon dating. This paper explores the interaction of a major, prolonged desiccation event between c. 2300 and 2000 BC and human agency including migrations, the displacement of trading networks, warfare, the appearance of weapons made of bronze, and the… 

Middle Holocene rapid environmental changes and human adaptation in Greece

Climate Change, Geopolitics, and Human Settlements in the Hexi Corridor over the Last 5,000 Years

Social responses to climate change over human history have been widely discussed in academia over the last two decades. However, the transformation of the human–environment nexus crossing prehistoric

Climates of History, Histories of Climate: From History to Archaeoscience

The new scientific climate history is about more than just the history of climate. It is developing in a new climate of history; it forms one of several leading edges in archaeoscience, the broader

Climate, settlement patterns and olive horticulture in the southern Levant during the Early Bronze and Intermediate Bronze Ages (c. 3600–1950 BC)

We report results of palynological investigation of a core of sediments extracted from the bottom of the Sea of Galilee. The core was sampled at high resolution for both palynological analysis (a

Evidence of a prolonged drought ca. 4200 yr BP correlated with prehistoric settlement abandonment from the Gueldaman GLD1 Cave, Northern Algeria

Abstract. Middle Holocene cultures have been widely studied around the Eastern-Mediterranean basin in the last 30 years and past cultural activities have been commonly linked with regional climate
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 170 REFERENCES

Development and Disintegration of Maya Political Systems in Response to Climate Change

TLDR
A precisely dated subannual climate record for the past 2000 years from Yok Balum Cave, Belize is presented and it is proposed that anomalously high rainfall favored unprecedented population expansion and the proliferation of political centers between 440 and 660 C.E.

Risk, Climatic Variability, and the Study of Southwestern Prehistory: An Evolutionary Perspective

Two recent developments in southwestern archaeology are brought together in this paper. First, theoreticians have begun to argue that the archaeological record should be viewed as the product of

The Genesis and Collapse of Third Millennium North Mesopotamian Civilization

TLDR
Archaeological and soil-stratigraphic data define the origin, growth, and collapse of Subir, the third millennium rain-fed agriculture civilization of northern Mesopotamia on the Habur Plains of Syria and suggest that the impact of the abrupt climatic change was extensive.

Cultural Responses to Climate Change During the Late Holocene

TLDR
Four case studies drawn from New and Old World civilizations document societal responses to prolonged drought, including population dislocations, urban abandonment, and state collapse.

Collapse of Classic Maya Civilization Related to Modest Reduction in Precipitation

TLDR
It is concluded that the droughts occurring during the disintegration of the Maya civilization represented up to a 40% reduction in annual precipitation, probably due to a reduction in summer season tropical storm frequency and intensity.

Spatial and Temporal Characteristics of Climate in Medieval Times Revisited

Developing accurate reconstructions of past climate regimes and enhancing our understanding of the causal factors that may have contributed to their occurrence is important for a number of reasons;

Climate Change during and after the Roman Empire: Reconstructing the Past from Scientific and Historical Evidence

Growing scientific evidence from modern climate science is loaded with implications for the environmental history of the Roman Empire and its successor societies. The written and archaeological

Environmental change in Crete: a 9000-year record of Holocene vegetation history and the effect of the Santorini eruption

Palynological investigations were carried out in the coastal lowland of northwestern Crete, in the area of Lake Kournas. Results comprise the longest continuous vegetation record (9000 radiocarbon

Holocene climate variability

...