The Influence of Predictability and Controllability on Stress Responses to the Aversive Component of a Virtual Fence

  title={The Influence of Predictability and Controllability on Stress Responses to the Aversive Component of a Virtual Fence},
  author={Tellisa Kearton and Danila Marini and Frances C. Cowley and Sue Belson and Hamideh Keshavarzi and B. Mayes and Caroline Lee},
  journal={Frontiers in Veterinary Science},
To ensure animal welfare is not compromised, virtual fencing must be predictable and controllable, and this is achieved through associative learning. To assess the influence of predictability and controllability on physiological and behavioral responses to the aversive component of a virtual fence, two methods of training animals were compared. In the first method, positive punishment training involved sheep learning that after an audio stimulus, an electrical stimulus would follow only when… 

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