The Indirect Evolutionary Approach to Explaining Fair Allocations

@article{Huck1995TheIE,
  title={The Indirect Evolutionary Approach to Explaining Fair Allocations},
  author={Steffen Huck and Joerg Oechssler},
  journal={Games and Economic Behavior},
  year={1995},
  volume={28},
  pages={13-24}
}
Experimental results on the ultimatum game show clearly that (1) large fractions of players offer a 'fair' allocation and (2) that unfair (but positive) offers are systematically rejected. We offer an explanation of this behavior using the 'indirect evolutionary approach' which is based on the assumption that players behave rationally for given preferences but that their preferences change through an evolutionary process. We prove that despite anonymous interaction a preference for punishing… 

Random allocation of pies promotes the evolution of fairness in the Ultimatum Game

TLDR
Interestingly, it is found that the evolution of fairness can be promoted by the randomness associated with the size of pies, without the support of any additional evolutionary mechanisms.

The Evolution of Fair Offers with Low Rejection Thresholds in the Ultimatum Game

TLDR
An agent-based model is developed to investigate how generous strategies could evolve in the ultimatum game and finds that fair offers can readily evolve in structured populations even while rejection thresholds remain relatively low.

Rational Constraints and the Evolution of Fairness in the Ultimatum Game

TLDR
The work described here simulated a series of Ultimatum Games, in which populations of agents earned resources based on their preferences for proposing and accepting (or rejecting) offers of various sizes, and saw populations without the ordinal constraint come to emulate maximizing economic agents, while populations with the constraint came to resemble the behavior of human players.

Fairness versus reason in the ultimatum game.

TLDR
It is shown that fairness will evolve if the proposer can obtain some information on what deals the responder has accepted in the past, and similarly to the evolution of cooperation, is linked to reputation.

Evolution of fairness in the one-shot anonymous Ultimatum Game

TLDR
Using stochastic evolutionary game theory, where agents make mistakes when judging the payoffs and strategies of others, natural selection favors fairness, and across a range of parameters, the average strategy matches the observed behavior.

Ultimatum Bargaining Experiments: The State of the Art

In the basic ultimatum bargaining game two players, P1 and P2, must divide a pie ( ). P1 proposes a division in which he gets x and P2 gets x. P2 can then accept the division, in which the is split

Reciprocity—an indirect evolutionary analysis

This paper investigates agents who face a stylized pecuniary ‘game of life’ comprising the ultimatum game and the dictator game. Utility may but need not be attached to equity and reciprocity, as

The evolutionary origins of human fairness

Humans care about fairness and are ready to suffer financial losses for the sake of it. The existence of such costly preferences for fairness constitutes an evolutionary puzzle. Recently, some
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 44 REFERENCES

Fairness in Simple Bargaining Experiments

Abstract We present an experiment to test whether fairness alone can explain proposers′ willingness to make nontrivial offers in simple bargaining games. We examine two treatments: game (ultimatum or

Anonymity versus Punishment in Ultimatum Bargaining

Abstract Previous investigations have shown that laboratory play of the ultimatum game differs from the perfect equilibrium prediction. The anonymity hypothesis attributes this to a distortion of

An experimental analysis of ultimatum bargaining

Expectations and fairness in a simple bargaining experiment

We evaluate two competing hypotheses that try to account for robust violations of the predictions of game theory in Ultimatum bargaining experiments. One popular hypothesis is that the subjects are

An Evolutionary Approach to Norms

  • R. Axelrod
  • Economics
    American Political Science Review
  • 1986
Norms provide a powerful mechanism for regulating conflict in groups, even when there are more than two people and no central authority. This paper investigates the emergence and stability of

A Comparative Model of Bargaining: Theory and Evidence

Recent laboratory studies of alternating-offer bargaining find many empirical regularities that are inconsistent with the standard theory. In this paper, the author postulates that bargainers behave