The In-the-Ear Recording Concept: User-Centered and Wearable Brain Monitoring

@article{Looney2012TheIR,
  title={The In-the-Ear Recording Concept: User-Centered and Wearable Brain Monitoring},
  author={David Looney and Preben Kidmose and Cheolsoo Park and Michael Ungstrup and Mike Lind Rank and Karin Rosenkranz and Danilo P. Mandic},
  journal={IEEE Pulse},
  year={2012},
  volume={3},
  pages={32-42}
}
The integration of brain monitoring based on electroencephalography (EEG) into everyday life has been hindered by the limited portability and long setup time of current wearable systems as well as by the invasiveness of implanted systems (e.g. intracranial EEG). We explore the potential to record EEG in the ear canal, leading to a discreet, unobtrusive, and user-centered approach to brain monitoring. The in-the-ear EEG (Ear-EEG) recording concept is tested using several standard EEG paradigms… 

Figures from this paper

Wearable in-ear electroencephalography for real world applications : sleep monitoring and person authentication
TLDR
A readily deployable EEG biometrics system based on in-ear EEG is proposed, that is user-friendly and discreet in nature and does not require supervision by skilled personnel or the use of cumbersome equipment.
Wireless User-Generic Ear EEG
TLDR
This work presents a practical in-ear EEG device based on multiple dry electrodes, a user-generic design, and a lightweight wireless interface for streaming data and device programming, which outperforms the state-of-the-art in dry electrode in- ear EEG systems.
Ear-EEG from generic earpieces: A feasibility study
TLDR
An ear-EEG recording device based on generic earpieces which meets key patient needs (discreet, unobstrusive, user-friendly, robust) and that is low-cost and suitable for off-the-shelf use; thus promising great advantages for healthcare applications.
Wearable EEG and beyond
  • A. Casson
  • Computer Science
    Biomedical engineering letters
  • 2019
TLDR
The paper concludes by considering the next steps in the creation of next generation wearable EEG units, showing that a wide range of research avenues are present.
Exploring miniaturized EEG electrodes for brain-computer interfaces. An EEG you do not see?
TLDR
This study evaluates the signal quality obtained with an unobtrusive solution for EEG monitoring through the integration of miniaturized EEG ton‐electrodes into both a discreet baseball cap and an individualized ear piece and shows that such mini electrodes located at scalp and ear locations can reliably record event related potentials in a P300 brain–computer–interface application.
Concealed, Unobtrusive Ear-Centered EEG Acquisition: cEEGrids for Transparent EEG
TLDR
The rationale underlying the cEEGrid ear-EEG solution is explained, possible use cases are presented and open issues that need to be solved are identified on the way toward transparent EEG.
On the Feasibility of Using an Ear-EEG to Develop an Endogenous Brain-Computer Interface
TLDR
It is demonstrated thatEar-EEG can be used to develop an endogenous BCI system based on cognitive tasks without external stimuli, which allows the usability of ear-EEGs to be extended.
Development of Low-Cost in-the-Ear EEG Prototype
TLDR
The in-the-ear prototype in this study was built from earphone rubber as an earpiece and silver-adhesive fabric as electrodes, which cost 3 dollar per piece and impedance measurement is comparable to those of commercial electrodes.
Effects of Different Re-referencing Methods on Spontaneously Generated Ear-EEG
TLDR
Overall patterns of changes in alpha power and ERD/ERS were similar among the five re-referencing methods, but the contralateral-mean method showed statistically higher SNRs than did the other methods for both ear-EEG datasets, except in the contRALateral-bipolar method for the two mental tasks.
Ear-EEG: User-Centered and Wearable BCI
TLDR
It is shown that Ear-EEG bitrate performances are comparable with those of on-scalp electrodes, thus promising a quantum step forward for wearable BCI.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-9 OF 9 REFERENCES
An in-the-ear platform for recording electroencephalogram
  • D. Looney, C. Park, D. Mandic
  • Computer Science
    2011 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
  • 2011
TLDR
The proposed in-the-ear (ITE) recording platform promises a number of advantages including ease of implementation, minimally intrusive electrodes and enhanced accuracy (fixed electrode positions), which facilitates a crucial step towards the design of brain computer interfaces that integrate naturally with daily life.
Wearable Electroencephalography
TLDR
The requirements of portable EEG systems are investigated and the core applications of wearable EEG technology are linked, principally new electrode technology and lower power electronics, and the approach for dealing with the electronic power issues is outlined.
Auditory evoked responses from Ear-EEG recordings
  • P. Kidmose, D. Looney, D. Mandic
  • Computer Science
    2012 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
  • 2012
TLDR
It is shown that both steady state and transient responses can be obtained from Ear-EEG, and that these responses have similar characteristics and quality compared to EEG obtained from conventional on-scalp recordings.
Neural Network Analysis of the Mastoid EEG for the Assessment of Vigilance
TLDR
The results presented demonstrate conclusively that the tracking of fluctuations from alertness to drowsiness within the vigilance continuum is possible by neural network analysis of a single channel of EEG recorded from the mastoid site.
New horizons in ambulatory electroencephalography
  • E. Waterhouse
  • Medicine
    IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine
  • 2003
TLDR
With miniaturization of AEEG and seizure anticipation technology, and advancements in the ability to identify the transition from pre-ictal to ictal state, there is realistic hope that patients with refractory epilepsy may gain control over their seizures and enjoy significantly improved quality of life.
Motion-tolerant magnetic earring sensor and wireless earpiece for wearable photoplethysmography
TLDR
The new earring PPG system provides a platform for comfortable, robust, unobtrusive, and discreet monitoring of cardiovascular function and indicates a high correlation between the two measurements across the three evaluated conditions.
Detection of respiratory sounds within the ear canal
Twenty healthy male and female subjects were studied. Each breathed through a pneumotachograph at targeted shallow (3.0 mL/s/kg) and tidal (7.5 mL/s/kg) airflows normalized to body mass. The
Evaluation of a fall detector based on accelerometers: A pilot study
TLDR
High sensitivity and specificity of the algorithm could be demonstrated that was better than in other fall detectors worn at the hip or wrist at the same stage of development.
Waterhouse , “ New horizons in ambulatory electroencephalography
  • IEEE Eng . Med . Biol . Mag .
  • 2003