The Impacts of Emoticons on Message Interpretation in Computer-Mediated Communication

@article{Walther2001TheIO,
  title={The Impacts of Emoticons on Message Interpretation in Computer-Mediated Communication},
  author={Joseph B. Walther and Kyle P. D’Addario},
  journal={Social Science Computer Review},
  year={2001},
  volume={19},
  pages={324 - 347}
}
Emoticons are graphic representations of facial expressions that many e-mail users embed in their messages. These symbols are widely known and commonly recognized among computer-mediated communication (CMC) users, and they are described by most observers as substituting for the nonverbal cues that are missing from CMC in comparison to face-to-face communication. Their empirical impacts, however, are undocumented. An experiment sought to determine the effects of three common emoticons on message… 

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