The Identification of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol as an Antifungal Metabolite Produced by Cutaneous Bacteria of the Salamander Plethodon cinereus

@article{Brucker2007TheIO,
  title={The Identification of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol as an Antifungal Metabolite Produced by Cutaneous Bacteria of the Salamander Plethodon cinereus},
  author={Robert M. Brucker and Cambria M. Baylor and Robert L. Walters and Antje Lauer and Reid N Harris and Kevin P. C. Minbiole},
  journal={Journal of Chemical Ecology},
  year={2007},
  volume={34},
  pages={39-43}
}
Beneficial bacteria that live on salamander skins have the ability to inhibit pathogenic fungi. Our study aimed to identify the specific chemical agent(s) of this process and asked if any of the antifungal compounds known to operate in analogous plant–bacteria–fungi systems were present. Crude extracts of bacteria isolated from salamander skin were exposed to HPLC, UV-Vis, GC-MS, and HR-MS analyses. These investigations show that 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol is produced by the bacteria isolate… 
Prodigiosin, Violacein, and Volatile Organic Compounds Produced by Widespread Cutaneous Bacteria of Amphibians Can Inhibit Two Batrachochytrium Fungal Pathogens
TLDR
Isolates that grow and continue to produce antifungal compounds in the presence of pathogens may represent promising probiotics for amphibians infected or at risk of chytridiomycosis.
The Bacterially Produced Metabolite Violacein Is Associated with Survival of Amphibians Infected with a Lethal Fungus
TLDR
It is suggested that a threshold violacein concentration of about 18 μM on a salamander's skin prevents mortality and morbidity caused by B. dendrobatidis, and it is shown that over one-half of individuals in nature support antifungal bacteria that produce Violacein, which suggests that there is a mutualism between violACEin-producing bacteria and P. cinereus.
2,4-Diacetylphloroglucinol producing Pseudomonas fluorescens JM-1 for management of ear rot disease caused by Fusarium moniliforme in Zea mays L.
Maize (Zea mays L.) is a major cereal crop grown in a large number of countries. Loss in maize yield due to biotic stresses including fungal phytopathogens is a matter of immense concern. Control
Synergistic Inhibition of the Lethal Fungal Pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis: The Combined Effect of Symbiotic Bacterial Metabolites and Antimicrobial Peptides of the Frog Rana muscosa
TLDR
The data suggest that the AMPs secreted onto frog skin and the metabolites secreted by the resident beneficial bacteria may work synergistically to enhance protection against Bd infection on amphibian skin, and may aid conservation efforts to augment amphibian skins’ resistance to chytridiomycosis by introducing anti-Bd bacterial species that work synergistic with amphibian AMPs.
Amphibian Chemical Defense: Antifungal Metabolites of the Microsymbiont Janthinobacterium lividum on the Salamander Plethodon cinereus
TLDR
The hypothesis that cutaneous, mutualistic bacteria play a role in amphibian resistance to fungal disease is supported and exploitation of this biological process may provide long-term resistance to B. dendrobatidis.
Article 11.indd
The skin of amphibians possesses a large diversity of biologically active compounds that are associated with the natural defenses of these animals against pathogens. Five different extracts and
The effects of antifungal substances on some zoosporic fungi (Kingdom Fungi)
TLDR
This review focuses on experimental research with those isolates which have been studied, especially in some species of Synchytrium, Olpidium, Batrachochytrial, Allomyces, Blastocladiella, Neocallimastix, which represent genetically diverse groups.
Microbial Pyrrolnitrin: Natural Metabolite with Immense Practical Utility
Pyrrolnitrin (PRN) is a microbial pyrrole halometabolite of immense antimicrobial significance for agricultural, pharmaceutical and industrial implications. The compound and its derivatives have been
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 14 REFERENCES
Natural products with antifungal activity from Pseudomonas biocontrol bacteria
TLDR
These studies suggest that the biocontrol activity of bacteria can be dramatically increased to rival the activity of commercial chemical fungicides through directed genetic modification.
Common Cutaneous Bacteria from the Eastern Red-Backed Salamander Can Inhibit Pathogenic Fungi
TLDR
The cutaneous antifungal bacterial flora of a plethodontid salamander, Plethodon cinereus, was characterized to form mutualistic ecological relationships with amphibian species and help protect them from pathogenic fungi.
Antibiotic production by bacterial biocontrol agents
TLDR
This review presents recent advances in understanding of antibiotic production by bacterial biocontrol agents and their role in microbial interactions.
Positive Autoregulation and Signaling Properties of Pyoluteorin, an Antibiotic Produced by the Biological Control Organism Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5
TLDR
It is established that the polyketide pyoluteorin is an autoregulatory compound and functions as a signal molecule influencing the spectrum of secondary metabolites produced by the bacterial cell.
Antimicrobial peptides from amphibian skin: what do they tell us?
Amphibian skin secretions contain many biologically active compounds, such as biogenic amines, complex alkaloids, or peptides. Within the latter class of molecules, a large number of peptide
Antimicrobial Peptide Defenses in Amphibian Skin1
TLDR
The hypothesis that antimicrobial peptides produced in the skin are an important defense against skin pathogens and may affect survival of populations is supported.
Risk assessment for engineered bacteria used in biocontrol of fungal disease in agricultural crops
TLDR
This is the first direct demonstration that a functional, AFC producing GMM also has only a transient impact on mycorrhizal associations in established plant communities, and also has an improved spectrum of activity over other plant phytopathogens.
Amphibian Pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Is Inhibited by the Cutaneous Bacteria of Amphibian Species
TLDR
Using laboratory challenge assays, it is found that members of three genera of bacteria isolated from the skins of the salamander P. cinereus and members of seven genera isolate from the skin of theSalamander H. scutatum inhibited the growth of B. dendrobatidis.
Synthesis and herbicidal activity of the halo analogues of pyoluteorin.
The synthesis of some halo analogues of pyoluteorin [2,3-dichloro-5-(2',6'-dihydroxybenzoyl)-1H-pyrrole] through the use of a Friedel-Crafts aroylation of pyrrole with 2,6-dimethoxybenzoyl chloride,
Coevolved Crypts and Exocrine Glands Support Mutualistic Bacteria in Fungus-Growing Ants
TLDR
It is shown that ants rear the antibiotic-producing bacteria in elaborate cuticular crypts, supported by unique exocrine glands, and that these structures have been highly modified across the ants' evolutionary history.
...
...