The IκB kinase inhibitor sulfasalazine impairs long-term memory in the crab Chasmagnathus

  title={The I$\kappa$B kinase inhibitor sulfasalazine impairs long-term memory in the crab Chasmagnathus
  author={Emiliano Merlo and Ramiro Freudenthal and Arturo Romano},
Activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB by retrieval is required for long-term memory reconsolidation.
Findings indicate for the first time that NF-kappaB is activated specifically by retrieval and that this activation is required for memory reconsolidation, supporting the view that this molecular mechanism is required in both consolidation and reconsolidations.
  • Biology
  • 2007
It is suggested that the PS is necessary for long-term memory consolidation and for the activation of NFB as one of the target molecular athways.
Activation of Hippocampal Nuclear Factor-κB by Retrieval Is Required for Memory Reconsolidation
It is demonstrated that the inhibition of NF-κB after memory reactivation impairs retention of a hippocampal-dependent inhibitory avoidance task in mice, and results indicate that NF-σB is an important transcriptional regulator in memory consolidation and reconsolidation in hippocampus, although the temporal kinetics of activation differs between the two processes.
Acetylation of nuclear factor-kappaB in rat amygdala improves long-term but not short-term retention of fear memory.
Evidence is provided that HDAC-mediated deacetylation functions as an intranuclear molecular switch culminating in the termination of NF-kappaB transcriptional response that is involved in the formation of fear memory.
NF-κB transcription factor role in consolidation and reconsolidation of persistent memories
A review of experimental work obtained in the last years showing the essential role of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) family of transcription factors in memory processes in different learning tasks in mammals and on the regulation of immediate-early and late genes by epigenetic mechanisms that determine enduring forms of memories.
Roles for NF-κB and Gene Targets of NF-κB in Synaptic Plasticity, Memory, and Navigation
There is ample evidence to suggest a critical role for NF-κB in memory, but understanding of its gene targets in neurons is limited and only beginning to be appreciated, so this review will synthesize the research evaluating gene targets of NF-σB in synaptic plasticity and memory.
Roles for NF-κB in Regulating Gene Expression in Synaptic Plasticity and Memory
Previous studies have shown roles for some of these proteins in CNS disorders, where a rapidly growing literature supports the involvement of NF-κB, not only in neurodegenerative conditions, but also in synaptic plasticity and memory.
Calcineurin phosphatase as a negative regulator of fear memory in hippocampus: Control on nuclear factor‐κB signaling in consolidation and reconsolidation
A novel mechanism by which memory formation and reprocessing can be controlled by CaN regulation on NF‐κB activity is supported, suggesting that reinforcement during reconsolidation is more persistent than during consolidation.


Two Critical Periods for cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Activity during Long-Term Memory Consolidation in the Crab Chasmagnathus
Two phases of PKA activity are required during consolidation of LTM, one during training and the other between 4 and 8 h after training, suggesting that in this type of memory PKA activation is not required.
Sulfasalazine: a potent and specific inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B.
It is demonstrated that sulfasalazine is a potent and specific inhibitor of NF-kappaB activation, and thus may explain some of the known biological properties of sulf asalazine.
Suppression of NF-κB activity by sulfasalazine is mediated by direct inhibition of IκB kinases α and β
Sulfasalazine is identified as a direct inhibitor of IKK-α and -β by antagonizing adenosine triphosphate binding and contributes to the well-known anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects of sulfasalazines.
A neuromodulatory role of interleukin-1β in the hippocampus
It is shown for the first time that the production of biologically significant amounts of IL-1β in the brain can be induced by a sustained increase in the activity of a discrete population of neurons and a physiological involvement of this cytokine in synaptic plasticity is suggested.
Prostaglandins play a role in memory consolidation in the chick.
  • C. Hölscher
  • Biology, Psychology
    European journal of pharmacology
  • 1995