The Human Vomeronasal System: A Review

@article{MontiBloch1998TheHV,
  title={The Human Vomeronasal System: A Review},
  author={L. Monti-Bloch and Clive L. D. Jennings-White and David L. Berliner},
  journal={Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences},
  year={1998},
  volume={855}
}
ABSTRACT: Recent publications show that the human vomeronasal organ (VNO) develops and grows during gestation, and is present in all adult humans. The human VNO has a unique ultrastructure, with elongated bipolar microvillar cells that stain with several immunomarkers. These cells show physiological properties similar to chemosensory receptor cells of other mammalian species. The adult human VNO displays species‐specific, gender‐dimorphic and highly stereospecific responses to ligands. The… Expand
Anatomical evidence for an endocrine activity of the vomeronasal organ in humans
TLDR
The findings presented here confirm the bilateral presence of the VNO in adult cadavers and demonstrate morphological connections of VNO receptor cells with the underlying capillaries and possible endocrine activity associated with the epithelium of this chemosensory structure has been demonstrated by the expression of calcium‐binding protein in a part of these receptor cells. Expand
The vomeronasal organ: History, development, morphology, and functional neuroanatomy.
TLDR
Its main role is pheromone reception and, through its anatomical connections with the central nervous system, especially parts of the hypothalamus, modulation of both social and sexual behavior, although these relations have been established only in nonprimates and very little is yet established for the structure and function of the human VNO. Expand
Structure and function of the vomeronasal system: an update
TLDR
New anatomical studies of the central pathways of the olfactory and vomeronasal systems indicated that these two systems converge on neurons in the telencephalon, providing an anatomical substrate for functional interactions. Expand
The human vomeronasal organ. Part II: prenatal development
TLDR
It is indicated that all embryonic humans develop a vomeronasal organ which is homologous with the VNOs of other mammals, but which has become displaced and highly variable in relative location during embryogenesis. Expand
The human vomeronasal organ. III. Postnatal development from infancy to the ninth decade
TLDR
The large literature on the human vomeronasal organ (VNO) offers little consensus as to its persistence in the adult, but the consistent presence of the VNO is reported as a homologue, in the form of a duct‐like structure on the nasal septum at all ages. Expand
Vomeronasal versus olfactory epithelium: is there a cellular basis for human vomeronasal perception?
TLDR
The human case constitutes a borderline situation, as its embryonic VNO anlage exerts a developmental track common to most macrosmatics, but later typical structures such as the VNN, AOB, and probably most of the chemoreceptor cells within the still existent VND are lost. Expand
The human vomeronasal organ. V. An interpretation of its discovery by Ruysch, Jacobson, or Kölliker, with an English translation of Kölliker (1877).
The vomeronasal organs (VNOs) of mammals are highly variable epithelial structures found bilaterally in the mucosa of the nasal septum. Whereas the discovery of the human VNO is traditionallyExpand
The Risk of Extrapolation in Neuroanatomy: The Case of the Mammalian Vomeronasal System†
TLDR
It is hypothesised that the vomeronasal system, considered for all mammalian species, could be a system undergoing involution or regression, and could serve as one more integrated olfactory subsystem. Expand
Steroidal pheromones and their potential target sites in the vomeronasal organ
&NA; Steroids are important olfactory signals in most mammalian species. The vomeronasal organ has been suspected to be the primary target of pheromones. In rat vomeronasal sensory neurons expressExpand
Biogenic amines in the vomeronasal organ.
TLDR
Data suggest that functional sex dimorphism is present in the vomeronasal organ, and biochemical changes therein take place according to stage of sexual maturity. Expand
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References

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Ultrastructure of the human vomeronasal organ
TLDR
Electron microscopy of the adult human vomeronasal organ indicates the presence of two potential receptor elements in the pseudostratified epithelial lining: microvillar cells, and unmyelinated, intraepithelial axons, which appear to constitute the components essential for a functional chemosensory system. Expand
Sensory receptor-like cells in the human foetal vomeronasal organ.
TLDR
The results suggest that during the early foetal period, the VNO could have some, as yet unknown, sensory function. Expand
Neurobehavioral evidence for the involvement of the vomeronasal system in mammalian reproduction
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TLDR
The equivocal evidence claiming a vestigial or absent organ in humans is reviewed and based upon anatomical considerations, the sensory epithelium of Jacobson's organ is one of five possible sensory components within the nasal cavity. Expand
The functionality of the human vomeronasal organ (VNO): Evidence for steroid receptors
TLDR
These data demonstrate, for the first time, the existence of a functional vomeronasal-pituitary pathway in adult humans and provides evidence for functional connections between the VNO and a variety of hypothalamic areas inAdult humans. Expand
The organization and function of the vomeronasal system.
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TLDR
The vomeronasal (VN) organ is a chemoreceptive structure situated at the base of the nasal septum of most terrestrial vertebrates and has different roles in the execution of several species-typical behaviors that depend on reception of chemo­ signals emitted by conspecifics or prey. Expand
Vomeronasal epithelial cells of the adult human express neuron‐specific molecules
TLDR
The results indicate that the adult human VNE contains cells expressing two molecular markers characteristic of neurons and that these cells bear a striking morphological similarity to ORNs. Expand
Vomeronasal organs and nerves of Jacobson in the human fetus.
TLDR
The vomeronasal organs and nerves of Jacobson were found on both sides of the nasal septum in a 28-week human fetus and the lack of intraepithelial blood vessels and mitoses may suggest that the vomeronsal organs are undergoing degeneration at 28 weeks of gestation. Expand
Clinical and histological evidence for the presence of the vomeronasal (Jacobson's) organ in adult humans.
TLDR
Histological examination failed to reveal any evidence that these organs may be functional, and the significance of the findings is assessed in the light of this evidence. Expand
The human vomeronasal organ: prenatal developmental stages and distribution of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone.
TLDR
The study demonstrates in normal human prenatal material that LHRH can be recorded in the bilateral vomeronasal organs during approximately 4 weeks of intrauterine life. Expand
The human vomeronasal system
TLDR
The studies indicate the adult human VNO is a functional chemosensory organ with a sexually dimorphic specificity and the ability to transduce signals which modulate certain autonomic parameters. Expand
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