The Human Genetic History of South Asia

  title={The Human Genetic History of South Asia},
  author={Partha P. Majumder},
  journal={Current Biology},
  • P. Majumder
  • Published 23 February 2010
  • Geography
  • Current Biology

Cross-continental admixture in the Kho population from northwest Pakistan.

The results inferred that the Kho can trace a large proportion of their ancestry to the population who migrated south from the Southern Siberian steppes during the second millennium BCE ~110 generations ago, which may possibly be linked to the expansion of the Tibetan Empire during 7th to 9th centuries CE in the northwestern regions of the Indian sub-continent.

Tracing the biogeographical origin of South Asian populations using DNA SatNav

The findings suggest that the genetic admixture between ancient North and South Indian populations likely first occurred along the Godavari and Krishna river basin in Central-South India.

Genetic diversity in India and the inference of Eurasian population expansion

The results show that Indian populations harbor large amounts of genetic variation that have not been surveyed adequately by public SNP discovery efforts, and support a delayed expansion hypothesis in which an ancestral Eurasian founding population remained isolated long after the out-of-Africa diaspora, before expanding throughout Eurasia.

The Soliga, an isolated tribe from Southern India: genetic diversity and phylogenetic affinities

The Soliga tribe was found to be remarkably different from other Indian populations including other southern Dravidian-speaking tribes, and in contrast, the Soliga people exhibited genetic affinity to two Australian aboriginal populations.

Characterizing the genetic differences between two distinct migrant groups from Indo-European and Dravidian speaking populations in India

A gene-flow from Europe to north India that provides an explanation for the lighter skin tones present in North Indians in comparison to South Indians is pointed to.

Insights into the demographic history of Asia from common ancestry and admixture in the genomic landscape of present-day Austroasiatic speakers

This study shows that contrary to assumptions in many previous studies and despite having linguistic commonality, Indian AAs have a distinct genomic structure compared to Malaysian AAs, reflective of the complex history of population migration and admixture shaping the genomic landscape of S&SEA.

Contrasting maternal and paternal genetic histories among five ethnic groups from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Pakistani populations Gujars, Syeds and Yousafzais showed strong paternal genetic affinities with other Pakistani and Central Asian populations, whereas Jadoons and Tanolis had close affinITIES with Turkmen populations from Central Asia and ethnic groups from northeast India.

Mitochondrial DNA diversity in the Khattak and Kheshgi of the Peshawar Valley, Pakistan

These mtDNA data allow us to begin reconstructing the origins of the Khattak and Kheshgi and describe their complex interactions with populations from the surrounding regions.

Reconstructing the population history of the largest tribe of India: the Dravidian speaking Gond

The authors' allele frequency and haplotype-based analyses reveal that the Gond share substantial genetic ancestry with the Indian Austroasiatic groups, rather than with the other Dravidian groups to whom they are most closely related linguistically.

A genetic chronology for the Indian Subcontinent points to heavily sex-biased dispersals

Maternal lineages primarily reflect earlier, pre-Holocene processes, and paternal lineages predominantly episodes within the last 10 ka, which are consistent with the patriarchal, patrilocal and patrilineal social structure of early Indo-European society.



Y-chromosome evidence suggests a common paternal heritage of Austro-Asiatic populations

The findings are consistent with the linguistic evidence, which suggests that the linguistic ancestors of the Austro-Asiatic populations have originated in India and then migrated to Southeast Asia.

Genetic evidence on the origins of Indian caste populations.

It is concluded that Indian castes are most likely to be of proto-Asian origin with West Eurasian admixture resulting in rank-related and sex-specific differences in the genetic affinities of castes to Asians and Europeans.

Reconstructing Indian Population History

It is predicted that there will be an excess of recessive diseases in India, which should be possible to screen and map genetically and is higher in traditionally upper caste and Indo-European speakers.

Diversity and Divergence Among the Tribal Populations of India

The results are consistent with high levels of genetic drift and isolation in Indian tribal populations, particularly those of South India, and they imply that these populations may be potential candidates for linkage disequilibrium and association mapping.

The genetic heritage of the earliest settlers persists both in Indian tribal and caste populations.

Results show that Indian tribal and caste populations derive largely from the same genetic heritage of Pleistocene southern and western Asians and have received limited gene flow from external regions since the Holocene.

Mapping Human Genetic Diversity in Asia

The results suggest that there may have been a single major migration of people into Asia and a subsequent south-to-north migration across the continent, and that genetic ancestry is strongly correlated with linguistic affiliations as well as geography.

Genetic evidence of an early exit of Homo sapiens sapiens from Africa through eastern Africa

M is rendered the first genetic indicator for the hypothesized exit route from Africa through eastern Africa/western India, possibly the only successful early dispersal event of modern humans out of Africa.

Deep common ancestry of Indian and western-Eurasian mitochondrial DNA lineages

Y chromosome evidence of earliest modern human settlement in East Asia and multiple origins of Tibetan and Japanese populations

It is proposed that D-M174 has a southern origin and its northward expansion occurred about 60,000 years ago, predating the northward migration of other major East Asian lineages.


This indicates that Indian populations were founded by a small number of females, possibly arriving on one of the early waves of out-of-Africa migration of modern humans; ethnic differentiationern Chinaoccurred subsequently through demographic expan-sions and geographic dispersal.