• Corpus ID: 73594618

The Hot and Energetic Universe: A White Paper presenting the science theme motivating the Athena+ mission

@article{Nandra2013TheHA,
  title={The Hot and Energetic Universe: A White Paper presenting the science theme motivating the Athena+ mission},
  author={K. Nandra and Didier Barret and Xavier Barcons and Andrew C. Fabian and Jan Willem den Herder and Luigi Piro and Mike G. Watson and Christophe Adami and James Aird and Jos{\'e} Afonso and D. A. Alexander and Costanza Argiroffi and Lorenzo Amati and Monique D. Arnaud and J. L. Atteia and M. Audard and Carles Badenes and Jean Ballet and Lucia Ballo and Aya Bamba and Anil Bhardwaj and Elia Stefano Battistelli and Werner Becker and Micha{\"e}l De Becker and Ehud Behar and Stefano Bianchi and Veronica Biffi and Laura B{\^i}rzan and Fabrizio Bocchino and Slavko Bogdanov and L. Marcel Boirin and Th. Boller and Stefano Borgani and Katharina Borm and Nicolas F. Bouch'e and H. Bourdin and Richard G. Bower and Valentina Braito and Enzo Franco Branchini and Graziella Branduardi‐Raymont and Joel N. Bregman and Laura W. Brenneman and Murray Brightman and Marcus Bruggen and Johannes Buchner and E. Bulbul and Marcella Brusa and Michal Bur{\vs}a and Alessandro Caccianiga and Edward M. Cackett and Sergio Campana and Nico Cappelluti and Massimo Cappi and Francisco J. Carrera and M. T. Ceballos and F. E. Christensen and You-Hua Chu and Eugene Churazov and Nicolas Clerc and St{\'e}phane Corbel and Amalia Corral and Andrea Comastri and Elisa Costantini and Judith H. Croston and Mauro Dadina and A. D’A{\`i} and Anne Decourchelle and Roberto Della Ceca and Konrad Dennerl and Klaus Dolag and C. Done and Michal Dov{\vc}iak and Jeremy J. Drake and Dominique Eckert and Alastair Edge and Stefano Ettori and Yuichiro Ezoe and Eric D. Feigelson and Robert P. Fender and Chiara Feruglio and Alexis Finoguenov and Fabrizio Fiore and Massimiliano Galeazzi and S. C. Gallagher and Poshak Gandhi and Massimo Gaspari and Fabio Gastaldello and Antonis Georgakakis and Ioannis Georgantopoulos and Marat Gilfanov and Myriam Gitti and Randy Gladstone and Ren{\'e} W. Goosmann and Eric Gosset and Nicol'as F. Del Grosso and Manuel Guedel and Mart{\'i}n A. Guerrero and Frank Haberl and Martin J. Hardcastle and Sebastian Heinz and Almudena Alonso Herrero and A. Herv'e and Mats Holmstrom and Kazushi Iwasawa and Peter G. Jonker and Jelle S. Kaastra and Erin Kara and Vladim{\'i}r Karas and Joel H. Kastner and Andrew R. King and Daria Kosenko and Dimita Koutroumpa and Ralph P. Kraft and Ingo Kreykenbohm and Rosine Lallement and Giorgio Lanzuisi and J. Lee and M. Lemoine-Goumard and A. P. Lobban and Giuseppe Lodato and Lorenzo Lovisari and Simone Lotti and Ian McCharthy and Brian R. McNamara and Antonio Maggio and Roberto Maiolino and Barbara De Marco and Domitilla de Martino and Silvia Mateos and Giorgio Matt and Ben Maughan and Pasquale Mazzotta and Mariano M{\'e}ndez and Andrea Merloni and Giuseppina Micela and Marco Miceli and Roberto P. Mignani and Jon M. Miller and Giovanni Miniutti and Silvano Molendi and Rodolfo Montez and Alberto Moretti and Christian Motch and Yael Naz'e and Jukka Nevalainen and Fabrizio Nicastro and P. E. J. Nulsen and Takaya Ohashi and P. T. O’Brien and Julian P. Osborne and Lida M. Oskinova and F. Pacaud and Frits B. S. Paerels and M J Page and I. E. Papadakis and Giovanni Pareschi and Robert Petre and P.-O. Petrucci and Enrico Piconcelli and Ignazio Pillitteri and Ciro Pinto and Jelle de Plaa and Etienne Pointecouteau and Trevor J. Ponman and Gabriele Ponti and D. Porquet and Kenneth Alwyne Pounds and Gabriel W. Pratt and P Predehl and D. Proga and Dimitrios Psaltis and David A. Rafferty and Miriam E Ramos-Ceja and Piero Ranalli and Elena Rasia and Arne Rau and Gregor Rauw and Nanda Rea and Andrew M. Read and J. N. Reeves and Thomas. H. Reiprich and Matthieu Renaud and Chris Reynolds and Guido Risaliti and J{\'e}r{\^o}me Rodriguez and Paola Rodr'iguez Hidalgo and Mauro Roncarelli and David J. Rosario and Mariachiara Rossetti and Agata R{\'o}żańska and E. Rovilos and Ruben Salvaterra and Mara Salvato and Tiziana di Salvo and Jeremy S Sanders and Jorge Sanz-Forcada and Kevin Schawinski and Joop Schaye and Axel Schwope and Salvatore Sciortino and Paola Severgnini and Francesco Shankar and Debora Sijacki and Stuart A. Sim and Christian Schmid and Randall A. Smith and Andrew W. Steiner and Beate Stelzer and Gordon C. Stewart and Tod E. Strohmayer and Lothar Struder and Ming Sun and Yoh Takei and Vincent Tatischeff and Andrea Tiengo and Francesco Tombesi and Ginevra Trinchieri and Takeshi Go Tsuru and Asif ud-Doula and Eugenio Ursino and Lynne Angela Valencic and Eros Vanzella and Simon Vaughan and Cristian Vignali and Jacco Vink and Fabio Vito and Marta Volonteri and Daniel Wang and Natalie Webb and Richard Willingale and Joern Wilms and Michael W. Wise and Diana M. Worrall and Andrew J. Young and Luca Zampieri and Jean in 't Zand and Silvia Zane and Andreas Zezas and Yuying Zhang and Irina Zhuravleva},
  journal={arXiv: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena},
  year={2013},
  volume={1306}
}
This White Paper, submitted to the recent ESA call for science themes to define its future large missions, advocates the need for a transformational leap in our understanding of two key questions in astrophysics: 1) How does ordinary matter assemble into the large scale structures that we see today? 2) How do black holes grow and shape the Universe? Hot gas in clusters, groups and the intergalactic medium dominates the baryonic content of the local Universe. To understand the astrophysical… 
Athena+: The first Deep Universe X-ray Observatory
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Hot gas pervades the Universe: about half of the baryonic content in the Universe is expected to be at T > 105 K, and there are as many baryons at T > 107 trapped in galaxy clusters as there are
Cosmic evolution of supermassive black holes: A view into the next two decades
The discoveries made over the past 20 years by Chandra and XMM-Newton surveys in conjunction with multiwavelength imaging and spectroscopic data available in the same fields have significantly
The first supermassive black holes: indications from models for future observations
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Study of the optical properties of X-ray selected galaxy clusters : multi-wavelengths analysis and implications for the future large surveys
Addressing fundamental questions regarding our understanding of the Universe, such as the cause of its accelerated expansion or the nature of dark matter, requires to confront theories and
Voyage through the hidden physics of the cosmic web
The majority of the ordinary matter in the local Universe has been heated by strong structure formation shocks and resides in a largely unexplored hot, diffuse, X-ray emitting plasma that permeates
The Athena space X‐ray observatory and the astrophysics of hot plasma †
The properties (temperature, density, chemical composition, velocity) of hot astrophysical plasma and the physical processes affecting them (heating/cooling, turbulence, shocks, acceleration) can be
NuSTAR view of the black hole wind in the galaxy merger IRAS F11119$+$3257
Galactic winds driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) have been invoked to play a fundamental role in the co-evolution between supermassive black holes and their host galaxies. Finding observational
SPICA and the Chemical Evolution of Galaxies: The Rise of Metals and Dust
Abstract The physical processes driving the chemical evolution of galaxies in the last ~ 11Gyr cannot be understood without directly probing the dust-obscured phase of star-forming galaxies and
BlueMUSE: Project Overview and Science Cases
We present the concept of BlueMUSE, a blue-optimised, medium spectral resolution, panoramic integral field spectrograph based on the MUSE concept and proposed for the Very Large Telescope. With an
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