The History of Biological Weapons Use: What We Know and What We Don't.

@article{Carus2015TheHO,
  title={The History of Biological Weapons Use: What We Know and What We Don't.},
  author={W. Seth Carus},
  journal={Health security},
  year={2015},
  volume={13 4},
  pages={
          219-55
        }
}
  • W. Carus
  • Published 10 August 2015
  • Engineering, Medicine
  • Health security
This article critically reviews the literature on the history of biological warfare, bioterrorism, and biocrimes. The first serious effort to review this entire history, made in 1969, had numerous limitations. In recent decades, several authors have filled many of the gaps in our understanding of the past use of biological agents (including both pathogens and toxins), making it possible to reconstruct that history with greater fidelity than previously possible. Nevertheless, there are numerous… Expand
How likely is it that biological agents will be used deliberately to cause widespread harm?
TLDR
The term “gain‐of‐function” should not be used in this discussion and this work should be referred to with the more precise term of PPP, because it refers to a much broader range of widely accepted non‐controversial research techniques and goals. Expand
Historical Aspects of Biological Weapons Development and Use
  • G. Koblentz
  • Political Science
  • Defense Against Biological Attacks
  • 2019
This chapter presents the most recent scholarship on the most important periods in the history of biological warfare. Historically, state-based biological warfare programs have been viewed as posingExpand
Biological warfare: the history of microbial pathogens, biotoxins and emerging threats
Bioterrorism is the deliberate misuse of a pathogen (virus, bacterium or other disease-causing microorganisms) or biotoxin (poisonous substance produced by an organism) to cause illness and deathExpand
Biodefence research two decades on: worth the investment?
  • Carrie M Long, A. Marzi
  • Medicine
  • The Lancet. Infectious diseases
  • 2021
TLDR
The legacy of modern biodefence funding includes advancements in biosecurity, biosurveillence, diagnostics, medical countermeasures, and vaccines and it is felt that these advances justify the substantial biodefences funding trend of the past two decades and set a precedent for future funding. Expand
Biological toxins of potential bioterrorism risk: Current status of detection and identification technology
TLDR
The recently completed EU-funded project EQuATox delineated the current status quo of toxin detection on the basis of a series of proficiency tests and highlights the need for future developments in the field. Expand
Deliberate release: Plague – A review
TLDR
It is concluded that the deliberate release of plague is feasible but unlikely to occur, and that a robust public health response and early treatment would rapidly halt the transmission of plague in the population. Expand
Biological Warfare in the 17th Century
  • W. Carus
  • Medicine, Biology
  • Emerging infectious diseases
  • 2016
TLDR
The authors’ effort to broaden the context for biological weaponry is undermined by a reference to an often repeated allegation for which no credible evidence exists: namely, that during a siege occurring in the Swedish–Russian War of 1710, the Russians catapulted bodies of plague victims into the Swedish-held city of Reval. Expand
Asia-Pacific Perspective on Biological Weapons and Nuclear Deterrence in the Pandemic Era
ABSTRACT This article provides an Asia-Pacific perspective on biological weapons and their relevance to nuclear deterrence in the pandemic era. The entire class of biological weapons is banned byExpand
Dual-Use and Infectious Disease Research
  • N. Evans
  • Political Science
  • Infectious Diseases in the New Millennium
  • 2020
Despite rapid advance in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, infectious diseases remain a central challenge for global health policy. In the twenty-first century, the life sciences—includingExpand
Detecting Biothreat Agents: From Current Diagnostics to Developing Sensor Technologies.
Although a fundamental understanding of the pathogenicity of most biothreat agents has been elucidated and available treatments have increased substantially over the past decades, they stillExpand
...
1
2
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 474 REFERENCES
The history of biologic warfare and bioterrorism.
TLDR
In preparing for the threat of biologic weapons, health care professionals should not only be familiar with the clinical presentation and pathophysiology of the diseases they produce, but also with the historic context of their past uses. Expand
Biological Warfare and Bioterrorism: A Historical Review
  • S. Riedel
  • Engineering, Medicine
  • Proceedings
  • 2004
TLDR
The concepts of biological warfare and its states of development, its utilization, and the attempts to control its proliferation throughout history are explained. Expand
[The history of biological warfare].
TLDR
Events in the history of biological weapons are highlighted to increase the physician's awareness of this crucial threat and to ensure that biological weapons remain a constant threat to human health. Expand
Biological warfare. A historical perspective.
TLDR
The history of biological warfare is difficult to assess because of a number of confounding factors, including difficulties in verification of alleged or attempted biological attacks, the use of allegations of biological attacks for propaganda purposes, and the incidence of naturally occurring endemic or epidemic diseases during hostilities. Expand
Feces, dead horses, and fleas. Evolution of the hostile use of biological agents.
TLDR
The potency, cost-effectiveness, and the ability to manufacture and deploy them with little sophistication, or under the semblance of legitimate commercial endeavors, will ensure that biological weapons remain a constant threat to public health. Expand
Historical Perspectives of Microbial Bioterrorism
A number of events over the last decade have served to focus attention on the threat of terrorism and the use of biological or chemical weapons against military and civilian populations for theExpand
A short history of biological warfare
  • N. Metcalfe
  • Medicine
  • Medicine, conflict, and survival
  • 2002
TLDR
The history of biological weapons, including the outbreak of the Black Death and the use of smallpox against American Indians, is reviewed, and effective preventive measures, including strengthening of the BWC, are imperative. Expand
Biological and toxin weapons : research, development and use from the Middle Ages to 1945
This interdisciplinary book analyses the origins of biological warfare planning and preparation up to the end of World War II. In the period between World War I and World War II, growingExpand
The History and Threat of Biological Weapons and Bioterrorism
Publisher Summary This chapter discusses the history and threats posed by biological weapons and bioterrorism. In the past, recognition of the effect of infectious diseases on populations resulted inExpand
History of Biological Warfare: Catapults to Capsomeres
TLDR
This review chronicles the story of biologcal warfare from 300 B.C. to the present, using examples from many published sources and has divided the chronology into historic periods on the basis of innovations that changed the nature of biological weapons. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...