The History of Alamethicin: A Review of the Most Extensively Studied Peptaibol

@article{Leitgeb2007TheHO,
  title={The History of Alamethicin: A Review of the Most Extensively Studied Peptaibol},
  author={Bal{\'a}zs Leitgeb and Andr{\'a}s Szekeres and L{\'a}szl{\'o} Manczinger and Csaba V{\'a}gv{\"o}lgyi and L{\'a}szl{\'o} Kredics},
  journal={Chemistry \& Biodiversity},
  year={2007},
  volume={4}
}
Peptaibol-Containing Extracts of Trichoderma atroviride and the Fight against Resistant Microorganisms and Cancer Cells
TLDR
The findings indicate the molecular basis of peptibol production in T. atroviride O1 and the potential of its peptaibol-containing extracts as antimicrobial/anticancer agents.
Alamethicin Supramolecular Organization in Lipid Membranes from 19F Solid-State NMR.
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The multifaceted mode of actions will make AMPs superior to antibiotics that act only on one specific target, whereupon most of these peptides are supposed to kill bacteria via membrane damage.
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TLDR
The Brevicompactum clade is recognized as a separate lineage in Trichoderma/Hypocrea and the new species T. arundinaceum is identified, which produces peptaibiotics, including alamethicins.
Assessment of Respiratory Enzymes in Intact Cells by Permeabilization with Alamethicin.
TLDR
Protocols for in situ measurement of two mitochondrial enzymatic activities: malate oxidation measured as oxygen consumption by the electron transport chain, which is sensitive to detergents, and NAD+-isocitrate dehydrogenase, a tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme that dissociates upon dilution are presented.
Acremopeptaibols A-F, 16-Residue Peptaibols from the Sponge-Derived Acremonium sp. IMB18-086 Cultivated with Heat-Killed Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
TLDR
Six new 16-residue peptaibol sequences were established based on comprehensive analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data in conjunction with HRESIMS/MS experiments and a plausible biosynthetic pathway of compounds 1-6 was proposed on the basis of genomic analysis.
Antimicrobial Peptides: An Update on Classifications and Databases
TLDR
This review examines current AMP databases, compares valuable computational tools used to predict antimicrobial activity and mechanisms of action, and highlights new machine learning approaches that can be employed to improve AMP activity to combat global antimicrobial resistance.
Measuring thousands of single vesicle leakage events reveals the mode of action of antimicrobial peptides
TLDR
The modes of action of these peptides are described via measurements of the disruption of the vesicle population under the conditions of continuous peptide dosing using a range of concentrations, and related the observed modes with the molecular activity mechanisms ofThese peptides.
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References

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The solution conformation of alamethicin, a 20-residue antibiotic peptide, has been investigated using two-dimensional n.m.r. spectroscopy. Complete proton resonance assignments of this peptide have
4‐Aminobiphenyl N‐glucuronidation by liver microsomes: optimization of the reaction conditions and characterization of the UDP‐glucuronosyltransferase isoforms
TLDR
The enzyme kinetic parameters of UGT isoforms catalysing 4‐ABP N‐glucuronidation were characterized and Alamethicin, a pore‐forming agent, was found to be the best reagent to activate UGTs.
Detection of new amino acid sequences of alamethicins F30 by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis–mass spectrometry
The microheterogeneous alamethicin F30 (ALM F30) isolated from the fermentation of Trichoderma viride strain NRRL 3199 was analyzed by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis coupled to electrospray
GLUCURONIDATION CONVERTS GEMFIBROZIL TO A POTENT, METABOLISM-DEPENDENT INHIBITOR OF CYP2C8: IMPLICATIONS FOR DRUG-DRUG INTERACTIONS
TLDR
Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis established that human liver microsomes and recombinant CYP2C8 both convert gemfibrozil glucuronide to a hydroxylated metabolite, with oxidative metabolism occurring on the dimethylphenoxy moiety (the group furthest from the glucuronid moiety).
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TLDR
The results corroborate the hypothesis that peptaibiotics might contribute to the plant‐protective action of their fungal producers and point out that comparison ofpeptaibiotic sequences is of limited relevance in order to establish chemotaxonomic relationships among species of the genus Trichoderma.
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