The History and Geography of Human Genes

  title={The History and Geography of Human Genes},
  author={Derek F. Roberts and Luca L. Cavalli-Sforza},
  journal={Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute},

Genetic distance, transportation costs, and trade

Genetic distance, geographic proximity, and economic variables are strongly correlated. Disentangling the effects of these factors is crucial for interpreting these correlations. We show that

Genetic Distance and International Migrant Selection

This paper looks at the effect of the relatedness of two countries, measured by their genetic distance, on educational migrant selection. We analyze bilateral country-level education-specific

Genes: Interactions with Language on Three Levels—Inter-Individual Variation, Historical Correlations and Genetic Biasing

The complex inter-relationships between genetics and linguistics encompass all four scales highlighted by the contributions to this book and, together with cultural transmission, the genetics of

Uniparental Markers in Italy Reveal a Sex-Biased Genetic Structure and Different Historical Strata

Analysis of uniparentally-inherited markers in ∼900 individuals across the Italian peninsula, Sardinia and Sicily revealed a sex-biased pattern indicating different demographic histories for males and females and a North West–South East Y-chromosome structure is found in continental Italy.

Front Speed of Language Replacement

A cohabitation model is introduced, which is more appropriate for human populations than classical (noncohabitation) models, and the front speed of a new language spreading into a region in which another language was previously used is found.

Clinal distribution of human genomic diversity across the Netherlands despite archaeological evidence for genetic discontinuities in Dutch population history

The observed clinal pattern of genomic diversity is interpreted as being caused by recent rather than ancient events in Dutch population history, demonstrating that genetic population substructure is detectable on a small geographic scale in Europe despite recent demographic events, a finding potentially relevant for future epidemiological and forensic studies.

High-density SNP genotyping detects homogeneity of Spanish and French Basques, and confirms their genomic distinctiveness from other European populations

The first high-throughput analysis including Basques from Spanish and French provinces is presented, and it is shown that all Basques constitute a homogeneous group that can be clearly differentiated from other European populations.

Human genetic differentiation across the Strait of Gibraltar

It is shown that gene flow across the Strait of Gibraltar occurred at relatively high rates since pre-Neolithic times and that natural selection and sex-bias migrations distorted the demographic signal at some specific loci of the authors' genome.


This work illustrates a new algorithm for genetic clustering and association analysis on a large, genetically heterogeneous sample, based on a spectral embedding derived from the normalized Laplacian of a graph that can produce more meaningful delineation of ancestry than by using PCA.