The Hippocratic Oath, Effect Size, and Utility Theory

@article{Bordley2009TheHO,
  title={The Hippocratic Oath, Effect Size, and Utility Theory},
  author={Robert F. Bordley},
  journal={Medical Decision Making},
  year={2009},
  volume={29},
  pages={377 - 379}
}
  • R. Bordley
  • Published 20 April 2009
  • Medicine
  • Medical Decision Making
To be consistent with the Hippocratic Oath, this article proposes that a physician choose that treatment that has the greatest chance of giving the patient an outcome no worse than the uncertain outcome an untreated patient would experience. As this article shows, this specifies the utility function that the physician should use in choosing among treatments. This utility function, although varying with the life circumstances of the patient, need not reflect the patient's utility function. This… 

Assessment of statistical significance and clinical relevance

TLDR
A new approach to the assessment of clinical relevance based on the so-called relative effect (or probabilistic index) is presented and appropriate sample size formulae are derived for the design of studies aiming at demonstrating both a statistically significant and clinically relevant effect.

Policy learning with asymmetric utilities

Data-driven decision making plays an important role even in high stakes settings like medicine and public policy. Learning optimal policies from observed data requires a careful formulation of the

Effect size measures and their benchmark values for quantifying benefit or risk of medicinal products

TLDR
The relative effect, also called Mann–Whitney effect size measure of stochastic superiority, is introduced, a truly robust measure, needing no assumptions about a distribution family, and is thus the preferred tool for assumption‐free, confirmatory studies.

A nonparametric approach to confidence intervals for concordance index and difference between correlated indices

ABSTRACT Concordance refers to the probability that subjects with high values on one variable also have high values on another variable. This index has wide application in practice, as a measure of

Distribution-Free Approach to the Design and Analysis of Randomized Stroke Trials With the Modified Rankin Scale

Background: Many methods have been suggested for analyzing the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). However, there lacks a unified approach to analysis and sample size determination that properly uses the

A Comment on 'A Psychologically Plausible Goal-Based Utility Function'

Introduction An individual's neoclassical utility function is typically defined over their current situation (e.g., how much of various commodities they own) and is not explicitly a function of the

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 23 REFERENCES

Reporting Practices and APA Editorial Policies Regarding Statistical Significance and Effect Size

The recent fourth edition of the American Psychological Association Publication Manual emphasized that p values are not acceptable indices of effect and `encouraged' effect-size reporting. However,

A History of Effect Size Indices

Depending on how one interprets what an effect size index is, it may be claimed that its history started around 1940, or about 100 years prior to that. An attempt is made in this article to trace

Practical Significance: A Concept Whose Time Has Come

Statistical significance is concerned with whether a research result is due to chance or sampling variability; practical significance is concerned with whether the result is useful in the real world.

Decision analysis using targets instead of utility functions

Abstract.A common precept of decision analysis under uncertainty is the choice of an action which maximizes the expected value of a utility function. Savage's (1954) axioms for subjective expected

A common language effect size statistic.

Some of the shortcomings in interpretability and generalizability of the effect size statistics currently available to researchers can be overcome by a statistic that expresses how often a score

Confidence intervals for an effect size measure based on the Mann–Whitney statistic. Part 1: general issues and tail‐area‐based methods

TLDR
Tail-area-based confidence interval methods are developed which can be applied to very small samples or extreme outcomes and are equivalent to the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve.

Expected utility without utility

This paper advances an interpretation of Von Neumann-Morgenstern's expected utility model for preferences over lotteries which does not require the notion of a cardinal utility over prizes and can be

Confidence intervals for an effect size measure based on the Mann–Whitney statistic. Part 2: asymptotic methods and evaluation

Several asymptotic confidence interval methods for U/mn, the Mann–Whitney U statistic divided by the product of the two sample sizes, are developed and evaluated alongside published methods. Novel

Multiattribute Preference Analysis with Performance Targets

This paper develops an approach based on performance targets to assess a preference function for a multiobjective decision under uncertainty. This approach yields preference functions that are

A Critique and Improvement of the CL Common Language Effect Size Statistics of McGraw and Wong

McGraw and Wong (1992) described an appealing index of effect size, called CL, which measures the difference between two populations in terms of the probability that a score sampled at random from