The Heaven and Earth Society as Popular Religion

  title={The Heaven and Earth Society as Popular Religion},
  author={David Ownby},
  journal={The Journal of Asian Studies},
  pages={1023 - 1046}
  • D. Ownby
  • Published 1 November 1995
  • History
  • The Journal of Asian Studies
The profound disdain with which most governments—Qing, Republican, Communist, or, in the case of Southeast Asia, colonial—have treated Chinese secret societies, as well as the undeniable involvement of many of these societies in violent and criminal activities, have obscured the religious elements at the core of the early Heaven and Earth Society (Tiandihui), the most widespread and well-known of Chinese secret societies. The vast historiography treating Chinese secret societies, often grounded… 

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