The Health Belief Model: A Decade Later

  title={The Health Belief Model: A Decade Later},
  author={Nancy Janz and Marshall H. Becker},
  journal={Health Education \& Behavior},
  pages={1 - 47}
Since the last comprehensive review in 1974, the Health Belief Model (HBM) has continued to be the focus of considerable theoretical and research attention. This article presents a critical review of 29 HBM-related investigations published during the period 1974-1984, tabulates the findings from 17 studies conducted prior to 1974, and provides a summary of the total 46 HBM studies (18 prospective, 28 retrospective). Twenty-four studies examined preventive-health be haviors (PHB), 19 explored… 

The validity of health belief model variables in predicting behavioral change

The results of this scoping review imply the need for a systematic review and meta-analysis of the results of recent studies and more longitudinal studies are needed to ensure the validity of HBM variables by considering any possible moderators.

The Health Belief Model and Predictions of Health Actions

An important role of applied social science in health has been the promulgation of theory designed to account for health behaviors of individuals and groups. Efforts to model various health-related

Evaluating the effectiveness of health belief model interventions in improving adherence: a systematic review

A systematic review of interventional studies which use the Health Belief Model as the theoretical basis for intervention design found only six studies used the HBM in its entirety and five different studies measured health beliefs as outcomes.

Towards an Effective Health Interventions Design: An Extension of the Health Belief Model

This paper extended the Health Belief Model by introducing four new variables: Self-identity, Perceived Importance, Consideration of Future Consequences, and Concern for Appearance as possible determinants of healthy behavior, showing the suitability of the extended HBM for use in predicting healthy behavior and in informing health intervention design.


Health campaigns and educational programs have recently focused on forming people’s beliefs. Many studies show that beliefs contribute to the development of preventive health behaviors. The purpose

A Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Health Belief Model Variables in Predicting Behavior

A meta-analysis of 18 studies was conducted to determine whether measures of these beliefs could longitudinally predict behavior, and benefits and barriers were consistently the strongest predictors.


Beliefs have proved to be significant factors in regulating behavior, including health-related behaviors. The health belief model suggests that people can perform or change their behavior depending

The health belief model’s ability to predict COVID-19 preventive behavior: A systematic review

Objective: The health belief model specifies that individuals’ perceptions about particular behavior can predict the performance of respective behavior. So far, the model has been used to explain why

Construct Validity Of Test Instruments For Health Belief Model (HBM) In Cervical Cancer Screening Behavior

The method of Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was applied and the findings indicated that out of 32 items of HBM scale, two items were evidenced to be invalid (dropped), i.e. items number 22 and 28.

Determinants of Condom-Use Behavior from Studies Using the Health Belief Model (A Literature Review)

This is a review of publications addressing aspects of the Health Belief Model (HBM) in predicting condom-use behavior. Five articles were identified as the most relevant and are included in the



The structure and reliability of health belief indices.

This study demonstrates that moderately reliable indices covering a wide spectrum of distinct health beliefs can be constructed and then replicated across independent samples and reveals that condition-specific measures of perception of susceptibility and severity and situation- specific measures of perceived barriers are empirically distinct from general measures of these beliefs.

Scales for Measuring Health Belief Model Dimensions: A Test of Predictive Value, Internal Consistency, and Relationships among Beliefs*

Data are presented from a prospective study of mothers' adherence to a diet regimen prescribed for their obese children, finding the Model components to be correlated with the study's measure of dietary compliance.

The Health Belief Model and prediction of dietary compliance: a field experiment.

In the context of a prospective experimental design, a psychosocial approach to understanding individual health-related actions (the Health Belief Model) was evaluated in terms of its ability to

Historical Origins of the Health Belief Model

I t is always difficult to trace the historical development of a theory that has been the subject of considerable direct study and has directly or indirectly spawned a good deal of additional

The Relationship of Health Beliefs, Health Locus of Control, and Self Concept to the Practice of Breast Self‐Examination in Adult Women

  • J. Hallal
  • Education, Psychology
    Nursing research
  • 1982
Analysis revealed that being a practicer of BSE was correlated with higher levels of health beliefs and higher self-concept levels, and Practicers tended to be less inclined to have a health locus of control that depended upon a powerful other.

The health belief model and utilization of ambulatory care services.

  • F. Leavitt
  • Medicine
    Social science & medicine. Medical psychology & medical sociology
  • 1979

The Health Belief Model and Sick Role Behavior*

Most research directed a t understanding ”activity undertaken by those who consider themselves ill, for the purpose of getting well” has yielded an unsystematic multiplicity of findings which are

The Health Belief Model and Illness Behavior

This review will examine psycho-social components of that initiative, especially the health beliefs that appear useful in understanding how health decisions are made, as well as a broader definition of illness that includes symptom experiences, self-treatment or “untreated” episodes, and seeking care.

Explaining the low use of health services by the poor: costs, attitudes, or delivery systems?

  • D. Dutton
  • Political Science
    American sociological review
  • 1978
Empirical evidence that such explanations do not fully account for income trends in preventive and symptomatic use is provided, and results suggest that neither financial access nor health education, without accompanying improvements in delivery systems, will eliminate income differentials in use.