The Haskins Laboratories’ pulse code modulation (PCM) system

  title={The Haskins Laboratories’ pulse code modulation (PCM) system},
  author={Douglas H. Whalen and E. R. Wiley and Philip Rubin and Franklin S. Cooper},
  journal={Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, \& Computers},
  • D. Whalen, E. Wiley, +1 author F. Cooper
  • Published 1 November 1990
  • Computer Science
  • Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers
The pulse code modulation (PCM) method of digitizing analog signals has become a standard both in digital audio and in speech research, the focus of this paper. The solutions to some problems encountered in earlier systems at Haskins Laboratories are outlined, along with general properties of A/D conversion. Specialized features of the current Haskins Laboratories system, which has also been installed at more than a dozen other laboratories, are also detailed: the Nyquist filter response, the… 
The proposed model of pulse code modulation encoder for voice frequencies
A hardware-based model of pulse code modulation (PCM) system for voice frequencies using triggered semiconductor switch and an Analogue to Digital Converter (ADC) Integrated Circuit (IC) to quantize and digitize of the output of the sample and hold as pulse amplitude modulation (PAM).
Some empirical observations on sound level properties of recorded piano tones.
  • B. Repp
  • Mathematics, Medicine
    The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
  • 1993
It was found that, on all three instruments, the levels of the lowest two harmonics near tone onset generally increased linearly with the peak root-mean-square (rms) level (in dB) as hammer velocity was varied for any given pitch.
Limits on phonetic integration in duplex perception
The results support the assumption that the independent phonetic system will integrate across disparate sources according to the cohesive power of that system as measured against the evidence for separate sources.
A maximum likelihood approach to estimating articulator positions from speech acoustics
This proposal presents an algorithm called maximum likelihood continuity mapping (MALCOM) which recovers the positions of the tongue, jaw, lips, and other speech articulators from measurements of the
Production and perception of coarticulated tones.
  • Y. Xu
  • Computer Science, Medicine
    The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
  • 1994
Perceptual identification was better for the compatible context than for the conflicting context, indicating that variation due to coarticulation is not always completely compensated for by listeners.
Inverting mappings from smooth paths through Rn to paths through Rm: A technique applied to recovering articulation from acoustics
A mathematical proof is presented that explains why MIMICRI can invert nonlinear functions, which it can do even in some cases in which the mapping from the unobservable variables to the observable variables is many-to-one, and it is shown that MICRI is able to infer accurately the positions of the speech articulators from speech acoustics for vowels.
Contextual tonal variations in Mandarin
The present study examines acoustic variations of tones in Mandarin under the influence of dif ferent tonal contexts . In particular , variations in the four Mandarin tones due to anticipatory and
Voice dysfunction in dysarthria: application of the Multi-Dimensional Voice Program.
Although several issues remain to be resolved in the acoustic analysis of voice disorder in dysarthria, steps can be taken now to promote the reliability, validity, and clinical utility of such analyses.
It has been long known that the four lexical tones in Mandarin are subject to contextual variation in connected speech. Most of the contextual tonal variation reported to date (not including
The role of prosody in adults’ acquisition of a miniature artificial language was examined in three experiments. In Experiment 1, learners heard and repeated prerecorded sentences of the language,


Telephony by pulse code modulation
Experiments indicate that a three- unit code appears to be necessary for a minimum grade of circuit, while a six- or seven-unit code will provide good quality.
Effects of Differentiation, Integration, and Infinite Peak Clipping upon the Intelligibility of Speech
Previous experiments on the effects of distortion in voice communication circuits have shown that intelligibility is impaired surprisingly little by the type of amplitude distortion known as peak
Computer‐Controlled PCM System for Investigation of Dichotic Speech Perception
To facilitate study of dichotic speech perception, a computer‐controlled PCM system has been devised for preparation of dichotic tests from natural speech. A test is a series of paired utterances,
Medium-rate speech coding - trial of a review
  • U. Heute
  • Computer Science
    Speech Commun.
  • 1988
A “coding gap” of roughly 32-2.4 kbit/s is shown to actually define “medium-rate” speech coding, and the fundamental approaches trying to close the gap are exposed.
Reference Signal for Signal Quality Studies
A family of reference signals for signal quality studies is described that is perceptually similar to speech signals undergoing certain signal‐dependent distortions, such as quantizing and predictive
A re-determination of the equal-loudness relations for pure tones
The paper describes a new determination of the equal-loudness relations for pure tones in free-field conditions which has been carried out at the National Physical Laboratory as a result of requests
Standards for PCM files
The focus is on setting a standard for PCM (Pulse Code Modulated) data files and how this could be accomplished and the advantages, disadvantages, and implications of each method.
Subcategorical phonetic mismatches slow phonetic judgments
  • D. Whalen
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Perception & psychophysics
  • 1984
Listeners take into account all available cues, even when the phonetic judgment seems to be based on only some of the cues, according to the results of five experiments on reaction time and mismatches of vowel quality.
Perceived timing is produced timing: A reply to Howell
In his commentary on the authors' paper, Peter Howell attempts to show that the center of gravity of an acoustic signal is sufficient to predict perceived timing of the signal, and the account of perceived and produced timing meets Howell's proposed criteria for adequacy better than does his own.
Clinical measurement of speech and voice
Analog Electronics. Digital Systems. General Purpose Tools. Speech Intensity. Vocal Fundamental Frequency. Laryngeal Function. Air Pressure. Airflow and Volume. Laryngeal Function. Velopharyngeal