The HPA axis in major depression: classical theories and new developments

@article{Pariante2008TheHA,
  title={The HPA axis in major depression: classical theories and new developments},
  author={Carmine Maria Pariante and Stafford L. Lightman},
  journal={Trends in Neurosciences},
  year={2008},
  volume={31},
  pages={464-468}
}

Figures from this paper

The HPA Axis in the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Depressive Disorders: Integrating Clinical and Molecular Findings
TLDR
This review will elaborate on both the clinical and molecular role of the neuroendocrine stress system in depressive disorder and present some of the most recent findings that have shed light on the complex interface between environmental stressors, molecular mechanisms and clinical presentation.
Deficits in KCC2 and activation of the HPA axis lead to depression-like behavior following social defeat
TLDR
Chronic social stress triggers the development of major depression in humans and depression-like behavior in animal models and Hyperexcitability of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been found.
ADHD and stress : Diurnal cortisol levels, early psychosocial adversity and perceived stress
The Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal axis (HPA-axis) with its end product cortisol mediates the physiological response to stress thereby promoting mobilization of energy. The cortisol levels follow a
Hypocortisolism in recurrent affective disorders
Bipolar disorders and recurrent depressions are two common psychiatric disorders with a life time prevalence of approximately 1% and 8%, respectively. Despite treatment these patients suffer from a
Longitudinal relationships among depressive symptoms, cortisol, and brain atrophy in the neocortex and the hippocampus
TLDR
The aim of this study was to longitudinally assess the link between depressive symptoms, brain atrophy, and cortisol levels and to speculate on the mechanisms underlying this relationship.
Cognitive correlates of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis in major depression
TLDR
Novel approaches in pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy have emerged which will be discussed with regard to their ability to reinstate normal HPA axis function inMDD and to treat cognitive impairments in MDD.
Not fade away: the HPA axis and depression
  • P. Cowen
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Psychological Medicine
  • 2009
Salivary cortisol sampling has confirmed the presence of increased cortisol secretion in depression and has also revealed that some aspects of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis disturbance
The interactive association of proximal life stress and cumulative HPA axis functioning with depressive symptoms
TLDR
It is particularly important to understand the synergistic association between recent life stress and HPA axis functioning on depressive symptoms during adolescence, as this is a developmental period associated with a high risk for depression.
Long-Term Health Outcome of Adolescent Mood Disorders : Focus on Bipolar Disorder
There has recently been an intense debate about the increased rate of bipolar disorders (BPD) in children and adolescents observed in clinical settings. Thus, there is great interest in child and a
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 40 REFERENCES
Polymorphisms of the Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene and Major Depression
The neurobiology of depression: inroads to treatment and new drug discovery.
TLDR
Evidence from preclinical, epidemiologic, and clinical studies has converged to convincingly demonstrate that stressful or traumatic events occurring in early life significantly increase the risk for depression and other psychiatric illnesses in adulthood.
The glucocorticoid receptor: part of the solution or part of the problem?
  • C. Pariante
  • Biology, Psychology
    Journal of psychopharmacology
  • 2006
TLDR
It is concluded that a lack of the ‘positive’ effects of cortisol on the brain, because of glucocorticoid resistance, is likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of depression.
Mineralocorticoid receptor function in major depression.
TLDR
Despite high baseline cortisol levels, patients with major depression show high functional activity of the MR system, suggesting an imbalance in the MR/GR ratio.
Different responses to dexamethasone and prednisolone in the same depressed patients
TLDR
It is suggested that the additional effects of prednisolone on the MR explain the different responses to these glucocorticoids in the same depressed patients.
Increased salivary cortisol after waking in depression
TLDR
Depressed patients in the community appear to have increased early morning cortisol secretion, but the demonstration of this effect requires control for time of waking.
Neurobiology of early life stress: clinical studies.
TLDR
This review summarizes and discusses the available findings from neuroendocrine, neurochemical, psychophysiological, and neuroimaging studies conducted in children or adults with a history of early life stress, with or without psychiatric disorders, and addresses the role of a multitude of moderating and mediating factors.
CRH-sub-1 receptor antagonists for the treatment of depression and anxiety.
TLDR
It is concluded that both CRH1 antagonists have psychotropic effects unrelated to their neuroendocrine action, in line with behavioral data obtained from transgenic mice withCRH1 gene deletions, underscore that CRH 1 antagonists constitute a novel treatment of depression and anxiety but may also serve to prevent negative sequelae of severe stressors.
Do Corticosteroids Damage the Brain?
TLDR
This review is principally concerned with excess or disturbed patterns of circulating corticosteroids in the longer or shorter term, and the effects they have on the brain.
...
...