The HPA axis in bipolar disorder: Systematic review and meta-analysis.


OBJECTIVES To provide a quantitative and qualitative synthesis of the available evidence on the role of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis in the pathophysiology of Bipolar Disorder (BD). METHODS Meta-analysis and meta-regression of case-control studies examining the levels of cortisol, ACTH, CRH levels. Systematic review of stress reactivity… (More)
DOI: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.10.014


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