The Gut Microbiome and Treatment-Resistance in Schizophrenia

  title={The Gut Microbiome and Treatment-Resistance in Schizophrenia},
  author={Mary V. Seeman},
  journal={Psychiatric Quarterly},
  • M. Seeman
  • Published 28 November 2019
  • Medicine, Psychology
  • Psychiatric Quarterly
The effect of antipsychotic medication is poor in 30–40% of patients with schizophrenia; treatment resistance is usually met with shifts to new drugs or drug augmentation strategies or a trial of clozapine. The purpose of this review was to examine the potential role of intestinal bacteria in the bioavailability of antipsychotic medication and the possibility that parenterally administered antipsychotics might be able to overcome treatment resistance. Databases were searched with appropriate… 
The gut microbiome and antipsychotic treatment response
  • M. Seeman
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Behavioural Brain Research
  • 2021
Comparative Efficacy and Safety of Long-acting Injectable and Oral Second-generation Antipsychotics for the Treatment of Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
  • Seon-Cheol Park, M. Choi, Seung-Hwan Lee
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Clinical psychopharmacology and neuroscience : the official scientific journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
  • 2018
There is moderate to high level of evidence suggesting that in the treatment of schizophrenia, LAI SGAs have higher efficacy and are associated with higher rates of extrapyramidal syndrome and prolactin-related symptoms.
Reducing the stigma of long acting injectable antipsychotics – current concepts and future developments
The rationale for using LAI-APs is explained, their effectiveness is reviewed, barriers to use are explored and drug adherence remains a major target for improving treatment outcomes.
Shedding light on biological sex differences and microbiota–gut–brain axis: a comprehensive review of its roles in neuropsychiatric disorders
An increased understanding of the biological sex differences on the microbiota–brain may lead to advances in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders and increase the potential for precision medicine.
The Microbiota/Microbiome and the Gut–Brain Axis: How Much Do They Matter in Psychiatry?
Gut microbiota might represent an interesting field of research for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of common neuropsychiatric disorders and possibly as a target for the development of innovative treatments that some authors have already labelled “psychobiotics”.


The Pharmacogenetics of Symptom Response to Antipsychotic Drugs
  • G. Reynolds
  • Psychology, Biology
    Psychiatry investigation
  • 2012
There is little consistency between various studies, although some of the polymorphisms identified are in genes involved in neurodevelopment, which is increasingly being recognized as important in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.
Psychotropics and the Microbiome: a Chamber of Secrets…
This review will take into consideration different classes of psychotropics including antipsychotics, antidepressants, antianxiety drugs, anticonvulsants/mood stabilisers, opioid analgesics, drugs of abuse, alcohol, nicotine and xanthines.
Extensive impact of non-antibiotic drugs on human gut bacteria
A few commonly used non-antibiotic drugs have recently been associated with changes in gut microbiome composition, but the extent of this phenomenon is unknown. Here, we screened more than 1,000
Intranasal delivery of antipsychotic drugs
D2 receptor genetic variation and clinical response to antipsychotic drug treatment: a meta-analysis.
The authors conducted the first meta-analysis to examine the relationship between DRD2 polymorphisms and antipsychotic drug response in schizophrenia patients, finding that variation in the DRD(2) gene is associated with clinical response to antipsychotics.
Separating host and microbiome contributions to drug pharmacokinetics and toxicity
This study provides an experimental and computational strategy to untangle host and microbial contributions to drug metabolism and establishes mouse models that are isogenic except for a single bacterial gene responsible for microbial BRV metabolism.
Effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs in patients with chronic schizophrenia.
Olanzapine was the most effective in terms of the rates of discontinuation, and the efficacy of the conventional antipsychotic agent perphenazine appeared similar to that of quetiapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone.
Toward understanding genetic risk for differential antipsychotic response in individuals with schizophrenia
Advances in genomic analysis techniques, the better characterization of larger subject cohorts and an improved understanding of the role of environmental factors and gene–environment interactions are renewing hope that future research will identify genetic variants with stronger associations with treatment outcome.
The Use of Long-Acting Injectable Antipsychotics in Schizophrenia: Evaluating the Evidence.
The evidence review demonstrated that LAIs are superior to placebo for acute and maintenance treatment of schizophrenia and, in general, appear to be similar to one another in terms of schizophrenia relapse prevention.