The Great War, the Russian Civil War, and the Invention of Big Science

@article{Kojevnikov2002TheGW,
  title={The Great War, the Russian Civil War, and the Invention of Big Science},
  author={Alexei Kojevnikov},
  journal={Science in Context},
  year={2002},
  volume={15},
  pages={239 - 275}
}
Argument The revolutionary transformation in Russian science toward the Soviet model of research started even before the revolution of 1917. It was triggered by the crisis of World War I, in response to which Russian academics proposed radical changes in the goals and infrastructure of the country’s scientific effort. Their drafts envisioned the recognition of science as a profession separate from teaching, the creation of research institutes, and the turn toward practical, applied research… 
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