The Great Migration and African-American Genomic Diversity

  title={The Great Migration and African-American Genomic Diversity},
  author={Soheil Baharian and Maxime Barakatt and Christopher R. Gignoux and Suyash S. Shringarpure and Jacob Errington and William J. Blot and Carlos D. Bustamante and Eimear E. Kenny and Scott M. Williams and Melinda C. Aldrich and Simon Gravel},
  journal={PLoS Genetics},
Genetic studies of African-Americans identify functional variants, elucidate historical and genealogical mysteries, and reveal basic biology. However, African-Americans have been under-represented in genetic studies, and little is known about nation-wide patterns of genomic diversity in the population. Here, we present a comprehensive assessment of African-American genomic diversity using genotype data from nationally and regionally representative cohorts. We find higher African ancestry in… 
A continuum of admixture in the Western Hemisphere revealed by the African Diaspora genome
Genetic variation from deeply sequenced genomes of 642 individuals from North and South American, Caribbean and West African populations is presented, substantially increasing the lexicon of human genomic variation and suggesting much variation remains to be discovered in African-admixed populations in the Americas.
Recent fluctuations in Mexican American genomes have altered the genetic architecture of biomedical traits
Using genome-wide genotype data from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, it is found that Native American ancestry has increased over time across Hispanic/Latino populations, particularly in Mexican Americans where NativeAmerican ancestry increased by an average of ∼20% over the 50-year period spanning 1940s-1990s.
Recent shifts in the genomic ancestry of Mexican Americans may alter the genetic architecture of biomedical traits
It is found that Amerindigenous ancestry increased by an average of ~20% spanning 1940s-1990s in Mexican Americans, and temporal changes in population structure within Hispanics/Latinos that may influence biomedical traits are revealed.
Population histories of the United States revealed through fine-scale migration and haplotype analysis
A comprehensive view of recent population history is assembled by studying the ancestry and population structure of over 32,000 individuals in the US using genetic, ancestral birth origin, and geographic data from the National Geographic Genographic Project.
Population Histories and Genomic Diversity of South American Natives
Abstract South America is home to one of the most culturally diverse present-day native populations. However, the dispersion pattern, genetic substructure, and demographic complexity within South
Cryptic Native American ancestry recapitulates population-specific migration and settlement of the continental United States
An anomalous pattern of Native American ancestry from the US southwest is found, which most likely corresponds to the Nuevomexicano descendants of early Spanish settlers to the region, and a number of controversies surrounding this population are addressed, including the extent of Sephardic Jewish ancestry.
Geographic and temporal diversity in dental morphology reflects a history of admixture, isolation, and drift in African Americans.
  • J. Gross, H. Edgar
  • Environmental Science
    American journal of physical anthropology
  • 2021
It is demonstrated that admixture and drift can be inferred from multi-variable analyses of patterns of dental morphology in admixed populations, and is connected to efforts to flee oppression during the Great Migration, and the repeal of anti-miscegenation laws.
Evolutionary perspectives on African North American genetic diversity: Origins and prospects for future investigations
Focusing on Legacy African American, the African North American descendants of survivors of the transatlantic trade in enslaved Africans, emic evolutionary perspectives of their self‐identity are reported on from interviews of 600 individuals collected over 2 years.
Inferring Recent Demography from Isolation by Distance of Long Shared Sequence Blocks
It is shown that ancestry diffusing with a rate of σ≈50−−100 km/gen during the last centuries, combined with accelerating population growth, can explain the observed exponential decay of block sharing with increasing pairwise sample distance.


Genome-wide patterns of population structure and admixture in West Africans and African Americans
Quantifying patterns of population structure in Africans and African Americans illuminates the history of human populations and is critical for undertaking medical genomic studies on a global scale.
The Genetic Structure and History of Africans and African Americans
A detailed genetic analysis of most major groups of African populations is provided, suggesting that Africans represent 14 ancestral populations that correlate with self-described ethnicity and shared cultural and/or linguistic properties.
Global distribution of genomic diversity underscores rich complex history of continental human populations.
Patterns of variation across 443,434 single nucleotide polymorphisms genotyped in 3845 individuals from four continental regions are analyzed, suggesting both demographic history and recent ancestry events play an important role in patterning variation in large modern human populations.
Characterizing the admixed African ancestry of African Americans
These results are consistent with historic mating patterns among African Americans that are largely uncorrelated to African ancestral origins, and they cast doubt on the general utility of mtDNA or Y-chromosome markers alone to delineate the full African ancestry of African Americans.
The Genetic Ancestry of African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans across the United States
Population Genetics Models of Local Ancestry
Considering HapMap African-American data, it is found that a model with two distinct phases of “European” gene flow significantly improves the modeling of both tract lengths and ancestry variances.
Estimating African American admixture proportions by use of population-specific alleles.
Significant nonrandom association between two markers located 22 cM apart (FY-null and AT3) is detected, most likely due to admixture linkage disequilibrium created in the interbreeding of the two parental populations, emphasize the importance of admixed populations as a useful resource for mapping traits with different prevalence in two parental population.
The genetics of Mexico recapitulates Native American substructure and affects biomedical traits
Pre-Columbian genetic substructure is recapitulated in the indigenous ancestry of admixed mestizo individuals across the country, and two independently phenotyped cohorts of Mexicans and Mexican Americans showed a significant association between subcontinental ancestry and lung function.
Population genetic inference from personal genome data: impact of ancestry and admixture on human genomic variation.
Elevated male European and female African contributions to the genomes of African American individuals
There is a threefold higher European male contribution compared with European females to the genomes of African American individuals meaning that admixture-based gene discovery will have the most power for the autosomes and will be more limited for X chromosome analysis.