The Grammatical Ingredients of Counterfactuality

  title={The Grammatical Ingredients of Counterfactuality},
  author={Sabine Iatridou},
  journal={Linguistic Inquiry},
Counterfactual constructions convey the meaning that the speaker believes a certain proposition not to hold. This article investigates the morphosyntactic composition of counterfactual conditionals and counterfactual wishes and the question of how the form of counterfactuals is related to their meaning. Across languages, there are combinations of tense, mood, and aspect morphemes that are used repeatedly in the expression of counterfactuality. I discuss the role of all three components. 
Tense and Mood in Counterfactual Conditionals : The View from Spanish
Counterfactual conditionals in Spanish are expressed using an additional layer of past tense –‘fake’ tense– and subjunctive mood. An analysis is developed in which each of these two pieces ofExpand
Counterfactual antecedent falsity and the epistemic sensitivity of counterfactuals
Why do utterances of counterfactual conditionals typically, but not universally, convey the message that their antecedents are false? I demonstrate that two common theoretical commitments–commitmentExpand
Modal interpretation of tense in subjunctive conditionals
The paper gives an account of the meaning of subjunctive conditionals according to which the past tense receives a modal interpretation. The view allows the worlds of the antecedent to include theExpand
Zulu counterfactuals in and out of conditionals: consequences for counterfactual typology
The focus of this paper is the distribution of counterfactuals in Zulu. Zulu counterfactuals can be formed using either one of two standard strategies: a dedicated counterfactual morpheme orExpand
Counterfactuality and past
This paper will propose a simple and transparent approach that solves all the observed problems and offers a new understanding of the concept of counterfactuality. Expand
Zulu Counterfactuals in and out ofConditionals
It is shown that generic content antecedents never allow implicature cancellation, accounting for the lack of cancellation in the simple dedicated morphology constructions of Zulu counterfactuals. Expand
On the Role of Past Tense in Resolving Similarity in Counterfactuals
In this paper I investigate the semantics of counterfactual conditionals. I propose a generalized de re analysis according to which counterfactuals are predicated de re of situations in the actualExpand
Fake tense in Hausa counterfactuals: A novel argument for underspecified EXCL
The paper presents a novel argument from Hausa (Chadic) for the analysis of counterfactual fake tense in terms of a lexically underspecified EXCL-operator (Iatridou 2000). Evidence comes from theExpand
Counterfactuals and Arbitrariness
The pattern of credences we are inclined to assign to counterfactuals challenges standard accounts of counterfactuals. In response to this problem, the paper develops a semantics of counterfactualsExpand
Temporal Dynamic Semantics of Factual Counterfactuals
It is shown that non-past past construction updates the information state, and revises the context, and is comparable to the counterfactual analysis of factive emotive predicates such as "sorry"and "glad". Expand


Comparing English and Korean Counterfactuals: the Role of Verbal Morphology and Lexical Aspect in Counterfactual Interpretation
The purpose of this paper is to determine the role of verbal mo rphology and lexical aspect for counterfactuality and provide a procedure that uses thi s information to give the right interpretationExpand
Adverbs and Functional Heads: A Cross-Linguistic Perspective
One of the world's leading syntacticians presents evidence for locating Adverb Phrases in the specifiers of distinct functional projections within a novel and well articulated theory of the clause.Expand
Conditional interpretations of if‐sentences
This essay attempts the ambitious project of engaging readers of both stamps, upon a topic which, when all is said and done, has occupied logicians and grammarians separately for centuries. Expand
On the contribution of conditionalthen
This paper addresses the question of whether the appearance ofthen in a conditional construction has any effect on the meaning of the sentence as a whole. It will be suggested thatthen does make aExpand
Irrealis and the subjunctive
This paper suggest that in order to understand the cross-language distribution of the subjunctive mood one needs to understand the cross-grammar distribution of the irrealis modality, as well as haveExpand
Time and the Verb: A Guide to Tense and Aspect
This is the first thoroughly comprehensive study of tense and aspect, linguistic markers signifying relations in time. Tense and aspect have been peculiarly resistant to linguistic classification andExpand
Tense and Aspect: From Semantics to Morphosyntax
The authors bridge the gap between the semantic and syntactic properties of verb tense and aspect, and suggest a unified account of tense and aspects using Chomsky's Principles and Parameters framework. Expand
Past and Irrealis: Just What Does It All Mean?
  • S. Steele
  • History
  • International Journal of American Linguistics
  • 1975
morpheme which marks past tense also marks irrealis in sentences which describe unreal situations. Consider the following, randomly chosen examples. About Garo, Burling notes, "The rather elusiveExpand
On the Semantic Composition of English Generic Sentences
The overall purpose of the following discussion is to provide a set of general considerations that any formal semantic theory incorporating generics must contend with. Expand
In this paper I formulate principles to account for some of the ways in which tense, mood, aspect and modal verbs are used in English, and describe a computer program which operates according toExpand