The Gods Išum and Ḫendursanga: Night Watchmen and Street-lighting in Babylonia

  title={The Gods I{\vs}um and Ḫendursanga: Night Watchmen and Street-lighting in Babylonia},
  author={Andrew George},
  journal={Journal of Near Eastern Studies},
  pages={1 - 8}
  • A. George
  • Published 1 April 2015
  • History
  • Journal of Near Eastern Studies
* Abbreviations used in this article unless otherwise stated follow the CAD (The Assyrian Dictionary of the University of Chicago [Chicago, 1956–2010]). ETCSL = The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature ( 1 E.g., D. O. Edzard, “Ḫendursanga,” RLA 4 (1972–75): 324–45 and “Isum,” RLA 5 (1976–80): 213–14; D. O. Edzard and C. Wilcke, “Die Ḫendursanga-Hymne,” in Kramer Anniversary Volume, ed. B. L. Eichler et al. Alter Orient und Altes Testament 25 (Kevelaer… 


The Poem of Erra and Ishum: A Babylonian poet’s view of war

The history of war begins in ancient Iraq. The earliest reported conflict in human history was fought by neighbouring city-states, Lagash and Umma, in the mid-third millennium bc. The early course of