The Glass Ceiling Effect

@article{Cotter2001TheGC,
  title={The Glass Ceiling Effect},
  author={David A. Cotter and Joan M. Hermsen and Seth Ovadia and Reeve D. Vanneman},
  journal={Social Forces},
  year={2001},
  volume={80},
  pages={655 - 681}
}
The popular notion of glass ceiling effects implies that gender (or other) disadvantages are stronger at the top of the hierarchy than at lower levels and that these disadvantages become worse later in a person's career. We define four specific criteria that must be met to conclude that a glass ceiling exists. Using random effects models and data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we examine gender and race inequalities at the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles of white male earnings. We… 

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TLDR
An agent-based model is presented that explores how empirically established mechanisms of interpersonal discrimination coevolve with social norms at both the organizational (meso) and societal (macro) levels to produce this glass ceiling effect for women.
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