The Glass Ceiling Effect

@article{Cotter2001TheGC,
  title={The Glass Ceiling Effect},
  author={David A. Cotter and David A Joan M Seth Reeve Hermsen and David A Joan M Seth Reeve Ovadia and David A Joan M Seth Reeve Vanneman},
  journal={Social Forces},
  year={2001},
  volume={80},
  pages={655 - 681}
}
The popular notion of glass ceiling effects implies that gender (or other) disadvantages are stronger at the top of the hierarchy than at lower levels and that these disadvantages become worse later in a person's career. We define four specific criteria that must be met to conclude that a glass ceiling exists. Using random effects models and data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we examine gender and race inequalities at the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles of white male earnings. We… Expand
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TLDR
An agent-based model is presented that explores how empirically established mechanisms of interpersonal discrimination coevolve with social norms at both the organizational (meso) and societal (macro) levels to produce this glass ceiling effect for women. Expand
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References

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THE GLASS CEILING HYPOTHESIS
The general-case glass ceiling hypothesis states that not only is it more difficult for women than for men to be promoted up levels of authority hierarchies within workplaces but also that theExpand
The Glass Ceiling Revisited: Determinants of Federal Job Advancement
Using the results of a recent survey of federal employees and focus groups of the same population, this article extends previous research on the existence of a glass ceiling in the federalExpand
THE GLASS CEILING HYPOTHESIS
There is a range of issues on which we and our critics-Myra Marx Ferree and Bandana Purkayastha, and Dana M. Britton and Christine L. Williams-agree: Women face systematic obstacles to promotions inExpand
Glass-ceiling effect or cohort effect ? A longitudinal study of the gender earnings gap for engineers, 1982 to 1989
Using longitudinal data from the Survey of Natural and Social Scientists and Engineers (SSE), the author investigates whether what appears to be a glass ceiling in cross-sectional analyses of theExpand
Women above the Glass Ceiling
This research focuses on women in corporate positions “above the glass ceiling” and explores their perceptions on corporate mobility and strategies for success in elite positions. Through interviewsExpand
The glass ceiling in science and engineering
Abstract This article examines the effects of race and gender on occupational status and promotions in American science and engineering using the 1989 Survey of Natural and Social Scientists andExpand
Family Structure, Glass Ceiling, and Traditional Explanations for the Differential Rate of Turnover of Female and Male Managers
Abstract This longitudinal study investigated differential turnover rates between male and female managers employed by 20 Fortune 500 corporations. Data were first collected from the sample in 1989.Expand
Explaining Occupational Sex Segregation and Wages: Findings from a Model with Fixed Effects
Does segregation arise because "female" occupations have financial advantages for women planning to spend some time as homemakers as human-capital theorists claim? Do "male" occupations have moreExpand
Women's Gains or Men's Losses? A Closer Look at the Shrinking Gender Gap in Earnings
The recent closing of the gender wage gap is often attributed to increases in women's human capital. This explanation neglects the effect of growing inequality in men's earnings. The authors developExpand
Discrimination at the Top: American‐Born Asian and White Men
Asians are perceived as doing very well, and, indeed, the average earnings of several Asian groups exceed those of whites. However, although entering well-paying positions, Asians may be preventedExpand
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